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學齡前 兒童의 歸因發達에 관한 一硏究
- 學齡前 兒童의 歸因發達에 관한 一硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) study on preschool children's casual atribution processes : the type of external causes, justifications and socioeconjomic status
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육심리학과
- 학령전 아동; 귀인발달; 아동발달
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- This study is conducted to investigate the development of the causal attribution processes in preschool children. This study is made for three purposes. First, the study is designed to examine the degree of development of the discounting and the augmentation principles in the preschool children. For this purpose, the degree of the use of the discounting principle based on the type of external causes was compared with. Second, the effect of the Justifications variable is reexamined and the interaction effect between the justifications variable and the type of external causes has been tested. Finally, this study is intended to examine the difference of the degree of children's inference for the internal causes according to socioeconomic status.
The subjects of this study were 80 preschool children from high and low socioeconomic status. Children· from each socioeconomic status were assigned by blocked randomization to the four experimental conditions : facilitatory external cause-high justification, facilitatory external cause-low Justification, Inhibitory external cause-high Justification and inhibitory external cause-low Justification. Children were told six pairs of stories with relevant pictures, according to their conditions . They were asked to choose one who had stronger internal causes for the behavior of two protagonists in a pair of stories. And then they were asked to infer causes for each protagonist is behavior.
The analysis of variance has been utilized for the subjects' responses to the question. The result of this experiment showed a significant main effect of the type of external causes variable, which indicates' that the experimental situations are manipulated by the facilitatory or inhibitory external causes for given behaviors and they are made to employ discounting or augmentation principle to each condition. The preschool children were indicative that they could fundamentally use both discounting and augmentation principles in the processes of causal attribution. Especially , the result has shown that they could employ the augmentation principle more consistently than the discounting principle in inferring the internal causes of a behavior. These results have been interpreted as to support the results of Kim Tae Lyon's study (1983).
On the other hand, the main effect on the justifications variable of external causes didn't show .any significance. And two variables, the Justifications and the type of external causes, didn't show any significant interaction effect between them. These results are inconsistent with the previous studies which explain preschool children in the high justification condition to be revealed by more use of discounting principle than those in the Low Justification condition.
The main effect of the socioeconomic status variable didn't reveal any significance while the interaction effect between the type of external causes and socioeconomic status presented meaningful results. The effect of the socioeconomic status variable was significant only in the inhibitory external causes condition .It indicates that the effect of the socioeconomic status variable is partial. The interaction effect among the type of external causes, justifications and socioeconomic status is interpreted as due to the interaction between the type of external causes and socioeconomic status.
Consequently, this study contains following results: Pre-school children showed that they could fundamentally use both discounting and augmentation principles in the processes of causal attribution. Especially, they could employ the augmentation principle more consistently than the discounting principle in inferring the internal causes of a behavior. The justifications variable didn't show a significant main effect and the effect of socioeconomic status variable was partial.;본 연구는 學齡前 兒童들을 대상으로 歸因過程의 發達을 살펴보려고 하였다. 硏究目的으로 첫째, 外的原因類型에 따른 節減原理의 凉用정도를 비교하여 節減原理와 增大原理의 發達정도를 알아보고 둘째, 外的原因 正當化襲因의 效果를 재검증하고, 正當化變因과 外的原因類型간의 상호작용有無를 밝히며 셋째, 所得水準別 兒童들의 內的原因 推定정도의 차이有無를 검증하고자 하였다.
본 실험에는 高所得層과 低所得層의 學締前 兒童 80명이 참가하였다. 두 所得水準의 兒童들은 각기 4가지 실험조건 (促進的 外的原因-高正當化, 促進的 外的原因-低正當化, 妨害的 外 的原因-高正當化, 妨害的 外的原因-低正當化)에 구획무선배정되었다. 兒童들에게 조건에 따라 이야기 내용을 표현하고 있는 그림과 함께 6쌍의 이야기를 들려주고 두 주인공 중 더 강한 內的原因에 의해 행동한 주인공을 선택하도록 한 후, 각 주인공들의 행동原園에 대해 推定하도록 하였다.
兒童들의 반응에 대한 變量分析 結果 外的原因類型 變因만이 유의한 주효과를 나타냈다. 즉 外的原因을 促進的 原因과 妨害的 原因으로 조작하여 각각 節減原理와 增大原理가 적용되도록 한 상황에서, 學斷前 兒童들은 기본적으로 歸因過程에서 節減原理와 增大原理 모두를 사용할 수 있으며, 특히 增大原理를 飾減原理보다 더 일관되게 사용하고 있음을 보여주었다.
이 결과는 金泰蓮(1983)의 연구결과를 지지해 주는 증거가 된다. 外的原因 正當化變因의 效果는 없었으며, 正當化變因과 外的原因類型간의 상호작용도 발견되지 않았다. 이 결과는 學齡前 兒童들이 低正當化조건에서보다 高B當化條件에서 節械原理를 더 많이 사용한다는 先行硏究들의 결과아 일치하지 않는 것이다. 所得水準變園의 주효과는 보이지 않았으나, 外的原因羅型과 所得水準간의 상호작용효과가 유의하였다. 所得水準變因의 효과가 妨害的 外的原因條件에서만 유의하였는데 이것은 所得水準變園의 효과가 부분적임을 시사하는 것이다. 外的原因類型과 正當化 및 所得水準간의 상호작용효과는 外的原因類型과 所得水準간의 상호작용효과가 나온데 기인하는 것으로 해석되었다.
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