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가정환경과 개인문제 해결 인식과의 관계

Title
가정환경과 개인문제 해결 인식과의 관계
Other Titles
(THE) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND THE PERSONAL PROBLEM-SOLVING PERCEPTIONS IN THE URBAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Authors
김은경
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 교육심리학과
Keywords
가정환경개인문제FAMILY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSPERSONAL PROBLEM-SOLVING PERCEPTIONS
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
전찬화
Abstract
카운슬러의 중요한 역할은 사람들에게 어떻게 결정을 하고, 어떻게 문제를 해결하는 가를 가르치는 일이다. 그러므로 개인문제해결은 상담과 심리치료의 중심과제가 되어왔다. 그러나 그동안의 이분야 연구는 문제해결과정에 관한 이론적 연구와 미리 정해진 실험상황에 있어서의 문제해결능력을 측정하고 그 능력을 키우는 방법적 연구들이 그 주종을 이루고 있으며 실제생활에 있어서의 문제해결능력이나 개인의 문제해결인식 상태들에 대해서는 별로 연구가 되어있지 않다는 것이 연구자들의 공통된 견해다. 따라서 본 연구는 개인문제해결인식정도에 미치는 요인에 관한 연구의 하나로서 가정환경요인이 개인의 문제해결인식에 어떤 영향을 미치는지에 관해 알아보는 것을 목적으로하고 다음 구체적인 문제들을 살펴보았다. 1. 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식정도가 남녀에 따라 차이가 나는가? 2. 가정의 물리적환경, 부모의 직업, 출생순위에 따라 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식에 차이가 나는가? 3. 가정환경요인과 개인문제해결인식형태 사이에는 어떤 상호관련성이 있는가? 4. 가정의 가치지향성요인 즉 "사회상승주의", "물질지향주의", "전통지향성"에 따라 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식에 차이가 나는가? 5. 가정의 집단성격요인 즉 "역할기대", "상호간의 태도", "가정의 응결력"에 따라 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식에 차이가 나는가? 6. 가정의 심리적과정요인 즉 "성취", "개방", "친애", 및 "자율"에 따라 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식에 차이가 나는가? 이를 위해 서울시내 남녀고교 1개교씩을 선정하여 2학년 학생 각각 182명과 184명중 총 366명을 대상으로 1982년 Heppner와 Peterson이 개발한 문제해결인식도검사와 1970년 정원식이 개발한 가정환경검사를 실시하였으며, 가정환경을 요인별 규준점수에 따라 상·중·하 세집단으로 나누어 이들 집단간의 문제해결인식 점수의 차를 보는 F검증과 문제해결인식점수와 가정환경요인과의 상관관계를 보는 상관분석법을 주로 하였다. 이 연구 결과에서는 다음과 같은 사실들이 밝혀졌다. 1. 자신의 문제해결 태도와 행동의 인식정도는 여학생이 남학생보다 긍정적이었으며(p<.01) 특히 접근-회피형태에서는 p<.001수준에서 유의하게 여학생이 긍정적으로 문제에 접근함을 나타내었다. 2. 가정의 물리적환경정도, 아버지의 직업이 정신노동인지 육체적노동인지와 어머니의 직업유무는 학생들의 문제해결인식에 영향을 주지않고 있으며, 형제순위 또한 유익한 영향을 미치지 않고 있다, 3. 10개 가정환경요인과 문제해결인식과의 상관관계는 가정의 집단성격중 응결력과 상호태도, 가정의 심리적과정중 성취와 자율이 비교적 높은 상관관계를 나타내었으며, 나머지 요인들도 약간의 상관관계를 보여주나 역할기대는 전혀 상관이 없는 것으로 나타났다, 4. 가정의 가치지향성요인은 물질지향주의, 전통지향성 그리고 사회상승주의등 세가지 요인 모두 문제해결에 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 5. 가정의 집단성격요인중 역할기대는 문제해결 태도나 행동의 인식에 유익한 영향을 보이지 않고 있으며, 가족상호간의 태도는 5%수준에서, 가정의 응결력은 p<.001수준에서 유의한 차이로 문제해결의 태도나 행동의 인식에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 6. 가정의 심리적과정중 성취요인은 p<.001 수준에서 친애는 5%수준에서, 자율은 1%수준에서 문제해결 태도나 행동의 인식에 유의한 차로 영향을 미치고 있으며, 개방요인은 유의한 영향을 보이지 않고 있다.;Problem solving is of special concern for professionals who are interested in helping others solve problems that are particularly troublesome. Counselors are such professionals. Although a great deal of research within psychology has been concerned with problem solving, most of the research within counseling has remained at the conceptual level. In addition, a review of the counseling literature revealed that only a few studies have explicitly attended to the problem-solving process. Another reason for the lack of research on problem solving in counseling is the apparent irrelevancy of the problem-solving research for the practitioner. Most of the research methodologies examine how people solve predefined laboratory problems, which may be different or less complex than how people solve real-life personal problems. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of family environmental factors on how high school students perceive their personal problem solving attitude and behavior in their real life situations. The pattern of how people perceive their personal problem solving attitude and behavior has been known to be similar to how people actually solve their personal problems. Specific objectives of this study were 1) to examine the sexual difference in personal problem solving perception, 2) to find if there were any differences in students' personal problem solving perception by the differences of physical home environment, parents' occupation, and birth order, 3) to examine how the family environmental factors and the pattern of personal problem solving perception are correlated, 4) to find if there were any differences in students' personal problem solving perception by different level of value seeking family of the students, 5) to find if there were any differences in students' personal problem solving perception by different level of group characteristic factors of their family, and 6) to find if there were any differences in students' personal problem solving perception by different level of psychological process factors of the family environment. For this investigation, a total of 366 students (182 male and 184 female) from 2 high schools in Seoul was chosen, and the Personal Problem Solving Inventory developed by Heppner and Petersen in 1982 and Family Environment Survey Form developed by Chung in 1970 were applied to each student. The results obtained from the study were as follows: 1. Female students tended to have more confidence (P < .01) and approach style(P < .001) than male students in problem solving perception. 2. Students from higher level of physical home environment and those fathers had mental job were more affirmative in personal problem solving perception than the students from lower level of physical environment and those whose fathers' job were physical. The differences, however, were not statistically significant. Students of employed mothers perceived their problem solving attitude and behavior more affirmatively than those of unemployed mothers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Personal problem solving perception was not significantly affected by birth order. 3. Among 10 family environmental factors, the power of family consolidation, mutual attitude of family members, sense of achievement, and autonomy were highly correlated with the personal problem solving perception. Other factors but the expectation of parents' role were also found to have week correlation. 4. In the relationship between value-seeking pattern of family and the students' personal problem solving perception, student from low-material-seeking and low-tradition-seeking families showed higher problem solving perception level than those from more material and tradition seeking families, but the differences were not statistically significant. Students from more social-life-seeking families were more affirmative than those from other families in personal problem solving perception, but the difference was not significant either. 5. Among the group characteristic factors of family, role expectation among family members did not seen to show any significant effects on the students' personal problem solving perception level, but mutual attitude among family members, and the power of family consolidation seemed to affect the students' personal problem solving perception significantly at 5% and 0.1% level respectively. 6. Among the psychological processes in family, sence of achievement, sence of care among family members, and autonomy seemed to affect the students' personal problem solving perception more affirmatively. Students from families which scored higher level in those factors showed statistically different level of personal problem solving perception than the students from other families. The open-door-policy of family did not seem to affect the students' personal problem solving perception level.
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