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성인자녀와 부모간 경제적 자원교류 분석

Title
성인자녀와 부모간 경제적 자원교류 분석
Other Titles
Analysis on Financial Interchanges Between Adult Children and Their Parents
Authors
김지연
Issue Date
2006
Department/Major
대학원 소비자인간발달학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
문숙재
Abstract
본 연구는 부모와 따로 거주하고 있는 부부가구를 대상으로 성인자녀가구와 부모가구간 경제적 자원교류를 분석함으로써 가족내 세대간 경제적 의존성의 정도와 그 규모를 제시하고자 한다. 이를 위해 부모의 생존형태 및 교류유형을 파악하여 각 교류가구수와 교류액, 그리고 교류대상인 가구주부모와 배우자부모에 따른 교류액의 차이를 살펴보고, 자원교류의 성격을 수혜와 제공으로 구분하여 수혜형가구와 제공형가구의 특성과 교류액의 차이를 파악하고자 한다. 또한 성인자녀가구를 양가부모생존형태에 따라 양가부모생존형, 가구주부모생존형, 배우자부모생존형으로 분류하여 수혜형가구여부와 제공형가구여부, 그리고 순수혜액과 순제공액에 미치는 결정요인을 분석한다. 이러한 분석을 위해 한국노동연구원의 2003년 한국노동패널(Korean Labor and Income Panel Study) 6차 자료를 이용하여 가구주 부모와 가구주배우자의 부모 중 적어도 한 명 이상 생존해 있는 성인자녀가구 2,485가구(자원교류가구는 1,379가구, 비교류가구는 1,106가구)를 선정하였다. 자료는 빈도와 백분율, 평균, t-test 분석, 일원분산분석(ANOVA), Probit분석과 OLS분석을 사용하여 분석하였다. 본 연구의 분석결과는 다음과 같이 요약할 수 있다. 첫째, 성인자녀가구의 55.5%는 부모가구와 경제적 자원교류를 하는 것으로 나타났고, 이러한 자원교류가구의 특성은 비교류가구와 비교해서 성인자녀가구주가 고연령, 고학력, 취업상태로 서울거주, 자가소유, 현재경제상태와 건강상태에 대한 긍정적인 인식을 하고 있고 총소득과 순자산뿐만 아니라 부채도 더 많은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 부모의 양친존재여부는 가구주는 홀부모, 배우자는 양부모 상태였으며, 가구주부모와는 자주 왕래하고, 배우자부모와는 가끔이나 거의 왕래하지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 양가부모생존형태는 양가부모생존형이 자원교류가구에서 54.1%, 비교류가구에서는 45.9%였고, 가구주부모생존형은 자원교류가구 66.8%, 비교류가구 33.2%, 배우자부모생존형은 자원교류가구 53.7%, 비교류가구 46.3%를 차지하여 자원교류가 가구주 중심, 즉 친가 위주로 이루어지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 성인자녀와 부모의 15개의 기본교류유형 중에서 가장 대표적인 유형은 가구주부모와 배우자부모 양쪽 모두에게 경제적 자원을 받지는 않고 제공만 하는 [교류유형 9]로 35.5%를 차지하였다. 또한 기본교류유형을 수혜와 제공으로 범주화시킨 결과 수혜형가구는 14.8%, 제공형가구는 85.2%로 나타났고, 실제교류액은 순수혜액이 연평균 205만원, 순제공액은 연평균 131만원인 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 자원수혜형가구와 자원제공형가구의 특성을 살펴본 결과, 자원수혜형가구가 자원제공형가구에 비해서 성인자녀가구주의 연령은 낮고, 교육수준은 높은 것으로 나타났다. 반면 자가소유율은 더 낮았으며, 현재경제상태와 건강상태에 대해 상대적으로 더 부정적으로 인식하고 있었고, 연간총소득과 순자산은 더 적은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 가구주부모와 배우자부모 모두 생존해 있는 경우가 더 많았고, 가구주부모와 배우자부모와 자주 왕래하는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 경제적 자원 교류가구의 특성에 따른 교류액의 차이를 분석한 결과 자원수혜형가구의 순수혜액은 성인자녀가구주의 성별 및 배우자부모와의 왕래정도에 따라 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 자원제공형가구의 순제공액은 성인자녀가구주 연령, 교육수준, 취업여부, 주택소유여부, 현재경제상태 주관적 인식, 현재건강상태 주관적 인식, 가구주양친존재여부, 배우자양친존재여부, 배우자부모와 왕래정도에 따라 집단간 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 여섯째, 성인자녀와 부모간 자원교류 분석의 첫 번째 단계인 자원수혜형가구 여부 및 자원제공형가구 여부 결정요인에 관한 분석결과, 자원수혜형가구여부에 유의한 영향을 미치는 변수는 연령제곱(-), 거주지역: 광역시(+)∙도(+), 총소득(+), 배우자양친 존재여부(-), 가구주부모와 왕래정도(+)로 나타났으며, 자원제공형가구여부는 취업여부(+), 거주지역: 광역시(-)∙도(-), 총소득(+), 주택소유여부(+)가 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 두 번째 단계로 이루어진 경제적 자원교류액에 미치는 영향요인을 분석한 결과, 순수혜액에 미치는 영향요인은 교육수준(+), 거주지역: 광역시(+)∙도(+), 총소득(+), 배우자양친 존재여부(-), 배우자부모와 왕래정도(+)로 나타났으며, 변수들의 상대적 영향력은 40.7%였다. 순제공액에 영향을 미치는 요인은 교육수준(+), 취업여부(+), 장남∙장녀여부(+), 거주지역: 광역시(-)∙도(-), 가구원수(-), 총소득(+), 주택소유여부(+)였고, 변수들의 상대적 영향력은 22.4%였다. 마지막으로, 양가부모생존형태별 자원교류여부와 자원교류액 분석결과, 양가부모생존형에서 자원수혜형가구 여부의 유의한 결정요인은 가구주양친 존재여부(+)였고, 자원제공형가구 여부 결정에는 성별(+), 교육수준(+), 취업여부(+), 장남?장녀여부(+), 거주지역: 광역시(-)∙도(-), 총소득(+), 주택소유여부(+)가 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 순수혜액에 영향을 미치는 요인은 거주지역: 광역시(-), 주택소유여부(+)였으며, 순제공액의 영향요인은 배우자양친 존재여부(+), 배우자부모와 왕래정도(+) 등이었다. 가구주부모생존형에서 자원수혜형가구 여부 결정요인은 성별(+)이었고, 자원제공형가구여부의 결정요인은 취업여부(+)와 총소득(+)이었다. 순수혜액의 영향요인은 순자산(-)과 주택소유여부(+)였다. 반면, 순제공액의 영향요인은 없는 것으로 나타나 가구주부모만 생존해 있는 조건에서는 일단 부모에게 자원을 제공하기로 결정했으면 성인자녀와 부모의 특성이 제공액 결정에 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 배우자부모생존형에서는 자원수혜형가구 여부의 결정요인은 교육수준(-)과 거주지역: 도(-)였으며, 자원제공형가구여부의 결정요인은 취업여부(+), 거주지역: 광역시(-)∙도(-), 총소득(+)이 유의하게 나타났다. 순수혜액의 영향요인은 취업여부(+)였고, 순제공액의 영향요인은 성별(-), 연령(-)과 연령제곱(+), 교육수준(+), 거주지역: 광역시(-)∙도(-), 총소득(+), 주택소유여부(+)인 것으로 나타나 배우자부모에게 자원을 제공하는 경우 그 액수는 성인자녀가구주의 여러 개인적 특성에 따라서 크게 영향을 받고 있음을 알 수 있다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 다음과 같은 결론을 내릴 수 있다. 첫째, 자원교류액 중 순제공액은 성인자녀가구주의 연령이 30대일 때 가장 많은 것으로 나타났는데 이는 가구주의 연령이 40대 이후부터 부모에 대한 사적부양자로서의 역할이 축소될 가능성을 시사하는 것으로 부모세대가 노후에 자녀로부터 경제적으로 독립할 수 있도록 개인적 차원에서의 노후준비뿐 아니라 국가적 차원의 다양한 제도적 장치를 마련해야 할 것이다. 둘째, 부모와 경제적 자원을 교류하지 않는 44.5%의 비교류가구의 성인자녀들이 경제적으로 불안정한 지위에 있는 것으로 분석되었다. 현행 국민기초생활보호법은 ?부양의무자?기준을 마련해 가족을 통한 사적부양을 강조하고 있기 때문에 사회경제적 조건이 취약한 성인자녀의 부모는 사적부양은 물론 공적부양의 기회도 매우 한정되어 있을 것으로 판단된다. 그러므로 성인자녀의 부모에 대한 경제적 자원교류가 부모에게 중요한 부양기능을 한다는 측면에서 볼 때, 이들을 위한 기본생활보장과 유지를 위한 생활보호제도를 확대하고 개선하는 정부의 공적지원대책이 수립되어야 할 것이다. 셋째, 자원교류액 중에서 순수혜액이 순제공액보다 많은 것으로 나타났는데, 이는 경제적 자원교류를 통해서 성인자녀가 부모보다 경제적 혜택을 더 많이 받을 가능성을 의미하는 것으로 개별 가정내에서 성인자녀의 부모에 대한 경제적 자원제공을 통한 사적부양이 쉽지 않음을 시사한다. 노인가구나 취약가구에 대한 지원을 모두 공적 지원을 통해서 해결하는 것은 불가능하지만, 개별가정의 사적부양 부담이 감소될 수 있는 지원방안이 종합적으로 추진되어야 할 필요성이 있다. 또한 세대간 교류의 활성화를 위해 필요한 사회환경을 조성해야 한다는 저출산∙고령사회기본법에 의거하여 가족원간의 경제적 자원교류에 대한 세제지원 혜택과 같은 정부차원의 정책적 시도가 필요하다고 사료된다. 넷째, 부모와의 경제적 자원교류에 있어서 가장 중요한 영향을 미치는 조건이 성인자녀들의 경제적 안정성이었다. 구체적으로 성인자녀가구가 자원제공형 가구에 속할 가능성에 가장 큰 영향을 미친 요인이 취업여부라는 연구결과는 증가하고 있는 노인인구에 대한 부양비용을 감소할 수 있는 현실적 방안으로써 실업상태에 있는 성년층인구를 노동시장으로 최대한 끌어들일 수 있도록 하는 것이 성인자녀들의 부양역할을 유도하는 선행적 조건이 될 수 있음을 시사하고 있다. 그러므로 이와 관련하여 빈곤계층에 있는 성인자녀들의 시장소득을 높일 수 있도록 생계비지원을 넘어선 소득보장방안, 고용 혹은 일자리 창출문제, 비정규직문제 등을 해결하기 위한 다양한 공적방안과 제도적 장치의 모색이 필요하며, 경제적 자활을 위한 기술교육의 확대나 작업장 등의 활성화와 같은 정책적 배려도 적용되어야 할 것이다. 마지막으로, 성인자녀와 부모간 경제적 자원교류에 있어서 우리나라의 부계중심의 전통적 가치관이 큰 영향을 미치고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 부모와 자원교류하는 주 대상이 아들, 그 중에서도 장남이었고, 친가부모가 생존해 있지 않음에도 처가부모에게 주는 순제공액은 적었고, 지방의 경우 처가와 자원교류하는 경향이 줄어드는 것으로 나타난 연구결과는 성인자녀와 부모간의 자원교류가 여전히 장자중심의 가부장적 가치관에 의해 이루어지고 있음을 보여준다. 지난해 출산율이 1.08명(통계청, 2006)으로 딸의 부모부양이 불가피해지는 현실에서 부모부양에 대한 양성평등주의 가치관을 고취시키는 의식 확대가 절실히 필요하다. 이와 더불어 가구주 부모뿐만 아니라 배우자 부모를 부양하는 데 있어 경제적 동기부여가 될 수 있는 현실적 혜택방안도 마련되어야 한다.;This study aims at presenting the degree and size of financial independence between generations in the families with data of analysis on financial interchanges between adult children and their parents regarding the subjects of married households which have not lived with their parents. For this purpose, after the examination of parents' survival types and financially interchanging types, the numbers of interchanging households, the differences of financial interchanges, their interchanging expenses and interchanging subjects( householders' parents and spouses' parents) were analyzed. Besides, after the types of financial interchanges are divided into two such as a receptive type of households and a supplying type of households, the features of the two types of households were researched and the differences of interchanging expenses were analyzed. Finally, according to the survival types of both parents in two families, the households of adult children were classified into three types such as both parents' survival type, a householder's parents survival type and a spouse' survival type. And then, the decisive factors which were considered to have the possibility of having effects on both net receptive expense and net supplying expense, as well as whether or not there were receptive households and supplying households were analyzed. In order to analyze this result, the 6th data of Korean Labour and Income Panel Study of Korean Labour Institute in 2003 was used and 2,485 adult children' households (The numbers of financially interchanging households were 1,379 and those of non-financially interchanging households were 1,106.) in which one or two of parents of a householder' spouse and both of a householder' parents were alive were selected as the subjects for this study. Used data were analyzed by means of frequency, percentage, average, t-test analysis, ANOVA analysis, Probit analysis and OLS analysis. Analysis results of this study can be summarized as follows. Firstly, adult children' households which had interchanged financially were 55.5% of the whole sample. This survey revealed that compared to non-financially interchanging households, financially-interchanging householders were featured by old age, high education, occupation status, Seoul residence, house ownership, as well as positive perception on their present financial condition and their health condition. In addition, they had a number of total income, net assets and debts. And in this case, it was founded that only one of the householders' parents was alive as a widow or a widower and the both parents of spouses were alive. Besides, it was shown that they had often visited householders' parents and had rarely met spouses' parents. Secondly, it was discovered that the type of both parents' survival in two families amounted to 54.1% in financially interchanging households but, 45.9% in non-financially interchanging households. And the type of householders' parents survival was 66% in financially interchanging households, but 33.2% in non-financially interchanging households. The type of spouses' parents survival was 53.7% in financially interchanging households, but 46.3% in non-financially interchanging households. The result of this study revealed that a householder-centered financial interchanges were a main current. In other words, financial interchanges were focused on a husband's parents' home. Thirdly, the type of adult offsprings who supply only financial resources, not receiving them amounted to 35.5% in the first place among 15 numbers of financially-interchanging basic types between adult children and their parents. Besides, the survey identified that as a result of classifying the basic types of financial interchanges into two, such as the type of receptive households and the type of supplying households, the type of receptive households amounted to 14.8% and the type of supplying households 85.2%, and a yearly average of net receptive expense was ₩2,054,200 and a yearly average of net supplying expense was ₩1,309,000 in aspect of real interchanging expenses. Fourthly, a study on characteristics of the receptive type and the supplying type in terms of financially interchanging households showed the fact that compared to the latter type, the former type was lower in age of adult children's householders and much lower in percentage of house ownership, but higher in education level. Moreover, the former proved to perceive the present financial condition and health condition in a more negative way resulting in having smaller amount of yearly total income and net assets. As well, it was shown that the survival cases of householders' parents and spouses' parents were more in number, and householders' parents and spouses' parents had often visited. Fifthly, analysis on the differences of financially interchanging expenses according to the features of households doing financial interchanges resulted the fact that net income of financially receptive type of households was significantly different according to visiting frequency between spouses' parents ,as well as sexual distinction of adult children's householders. Net expenditure of the supplying type of households revealed a significant difference between the groups in terms of age, educational standard, occupation status, housing possession situation of adult children householders, their subjective perception on the present financial condition and the current health condition, whether or not both parents of householders are alive, whether or not both parents of spouses are alive and according to visiting frequency of spouses' parents. Sixthly, as the first analysis result on the decisive factors between the receptive type of households and the supplying type of households in terms of financial interchanges with the subjects of adult children and their parents, a variable to have a significant effect on the receptive types of financial interchanges was age squared(-), residential area: Megalopolis(a wide city area)(+). Province(+). total income(+), whether or not spouses' parents are alive(-), visiting frequency of householders(+). In addition to that, whether or not the type of financially supplying households is significant was determined by occupation status, residential area: Megalopolis(-). Province(-), total income(+), house ownership(+). As the second analysis result on the influencing factors on financial interchanges, main factors having effects on net income(net receptive expense) were education level(+), residential area: Megalopolis(a wide city area)(+). Province(+). total income(+) as well as whether or not spouses' parents are alive(-) and visiting frequency of spouses' parents(+). And relative influencing power of variables amounted to 40.7%. Factors to have effects on net expenditure(net supplying expense) were revealed education level(+), educational level(+), residential area: Megalopolis(a wide city area)(+). Province(+). total income(+), house ownership. And relative influencing power of variables amounted to 22. 4%. Finally, it was discovered that as a result of analysis on whether there were financial interchanges or not and financially interchanging expenses according to the survival types of both parents in two families, a significant factor deciding the receptive type of financial interchanges in the survival type of both parents depended on whether householders' parents are alive(+). And the significant decisive factors of the supplying type of financial interchanges were sexual distinction(+), educational level(+), occupation status(+), whether there is the eldest daughter or son not(+), residential area: Province(-), total income(+), house ownership(+). The influencing factor of net supplying expense was whether spouses' parents are alive(+) and visiting frequency of spouses, etc. The decisive factor to have effects on whether or not there is the type of financially receptive households was sexual distinction(+) in the type of householders' parents survival. The decisive factors having effects on whether or not there is the survival type of spouses' parents were occupation status(+) ad total income(+). The influencing factors having effects on net receptive expense were net assets(-), house ownership(+). It proved that there were no influencing factors of net supportive expense. The decisive factors whether or not there was the receptive type of households in terms of financial interchanges in the survival type of spouses' parents were educational level(-), residential area, Megalopolis. The decisive factors whether or not there was the supplying type of households were occupation status(+), residential area: Megalopolis(-). Province(-), total income(+). The effective factors on net receptive expense were occupation status(+) and the effective factors on net supplying expense were sexual distinction(-), age(-), age squared(+), educational level(+), residential area: Megalopolis(-), Province(-), house ownership(+). As a result, it was assumed that when financial resources were given to spouses' parents, the expense was affected by adult children householders, that is, individual characteristics of brother-in-law. In conclusion, there are five key findings based on the results of this study as follows. Firstly, this paper showed that adult children householders in the thirties were in the highest position of net supplying expense out of total expenses for financial interchanges, which suggested the possible reduction of their responsibilities or roles or duties toward their parents since adult children were in the forties. Therefore, diverse institutional devices for our old age in a personal aspect will have to be prepared and employment opportunities in a national aspect will have to be expanded so that parents' generations can be independent from their adult children at old age financially. Secondly, it will be needed to pay attention to non-financially interchanging households with their parents amounting to 44.5%. In particular, it was analyzed that adult children without interchanging financially with their parents were in an unstable position economically. The current basic national life protection law establishes the standards for supporters responsible for supporting their parents with a view to emphasizing private support for their parents or families. Therefore, it was assumed that adult children's parents who were in a poor condition socially and economically were limited to both private support and public support for their parents. Therefore, in consideration of the fact that financial interchanges of adult children with their parents had an important supportive function for their parents, it is necessary that the Government should establish public supporting institution as a countermeasure in order to improve and expand the livelihood protection act resulting in guaranteeing and maintaining their basic livelihood. Thirdly, this paper suggested that net income(net receptive expense) was higher than net expenditure (net supplying expense). It means that because adult children are likely to attain much more financial benefits than their parents, it's not easy for adult children to support their parents by financial interchanges to their parents in individual homes. Even though public support can entirely solve the supporting issue for elderly households and vulnerable households. it is necessary that supporting programs for them should be driven forward in general in order to reduce private supporting burden. Besides, based on basic law for low delivery and aging society focusing on establishing a social environment necessary for activation of financial interchanges between generations, this study proposed that the Government would have to be required to attempt to carry out a policy to provide support benefits on financial interchanges between families. Fourthly, it is a remarkable factor that the most influencing condition is financial stability of adult children through financial interchanges with their parents. To be specific, as noted above, because the most influencing factor which made it possible for adult children to belong to the type of supplying households in terms of financial interchanges was occupation status, first of all, it should be considered an essential prerequisite to attract adult population who are unemployed to labour markets and therefore, let adult children take responsibilities or duties for supporting their parents or families as a realistic measure taken in order to reduce support costs for the old age population. Hence, in relation to this suggestion, in order to enhance market income of adult children in the poverty line, beyond support of living costs, a variety of public measures and institutional devices such as income security system including assistance of living cost, employment or job creation, measures on irregular jobs as well as a policy for financially independent self-support such as expansion of technical education opportunities and activation of working places should be applied to deal with several social issues. Finally, from the above, it was apparent that traditional values based on a paternity-centered society of our country had effects on financial interchanges between adult children and their parents. This survey affirmed that a main object to interchange financially with parents was their son, especially the eldest son, and net expenditure(net supplying expense) to supply for a wife's parents was a small amount even though their own parents were not alive. Besides, the result of study that financial interchanges with wives' parents tended to decrease in Megalopolis and Province, compared to Seoul verified that financial interchanges between adult children and their parents had focused on a patriarchal value system centered on the eldest son. According to the survey result executed by National Statistical Office in 2002, it was inevitable that daughters were needed to take care of their parents and support them not only owing to the current circumstances that a sense of responsibility for supporting their parents had switched from the eldest son to capable daughters or otherwise to share common responsibility for their parents but also owing to a low birthrate of 1.08 person(NSO, 2006) in the last year. Therefore, we need to enhance the perspective on equalitarianism values that both daughters and sons should take equally supporting responsibilities or duties with wakeful consciousness. Moreover, it should be taken into consideration that realistic beneficial devices for supporting both householders' parents and spouses' parents should be established in order to give certain financial motives to them.
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