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自然色體系로서 五方色原理의 構造的 特性과 그 現代的 意味에 관한 考察 : 오방색체계와 natural color system의 특징 비교를 중심으로
- 自然色體系로서 五方色原理의 構造的 特性과 그 現代的 意味에 관한 考察 : 오방색체계와 natural color system의 특징 비교를 중심으로
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- 대학원 디자인학부환경디자인전공
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 환경디자인은 인간을 주체로 이루어지는 환경과 인간의 궁극적 가치인 미 를 실현하는 학문이다. 환경디자인 이론에 대한 학문적 접근은 다학제적 접근(interdisciplinary approach) 방법을 취하며 인간의 행태(behavior)의 지원성(affordance)을 강화하는 환경의 실현은 이 분야 연구의 공동 목표이다.
동-서는 인간과 환경, 환경과 환경, 인간과 인간의 관계를 서로 다른 관점에서 바라 보아왔다. 동아시아는 우주와 자연에 대한 직관적, 관념적 사유체계에서 인간과 환경의 조화를 강조하는 유기적, 순환적 논리를 바탕으로 전일주의적 관점을 따라왔다. 반면 서구는 뉴턴-데카르트적 세계관에 따른 현대과학과 기계문명의 발전과 함께 합리적, 과학적 논리를 바탕으로 환원주의적 관점을 취해왔다. 그 결과 현대는 환경오염과 자연파괴로 인해 지구 생태계의 지속가능성의 여부가 불확실해 짐에 따라 서구는 동아시아의 사유체계와 논리에서 문제 해결의 실마리를 찾고자 하고있다.
양자역학, 상보성원리, 불확정성 원리는 이와 같은 서구의 자구책 마련의 과정에서 등장한 현대과학이다. 상보성과 불확실성과 직관적 관념체계에 근거한 동양의 전일주의적 세계관은 신과학(新科學)적 세계관이라 하여 비과학적, 신비적이라 믿어왔던 동양의 음양오행원리에서 과학성을 발견하고자 하였다. 현대에 서구는 과학기술의 발전을 이룬 토대 위에서 동아시아의 음양오행원리의 통합을 시도하고 있다. 이와 같은 패러다임의 전환이 이루어지는 20세기 초에 연구된 헤링의 자연색체계(Natural Color System)는 색채체계연구의 혁명이었다. 서구의 과거 절대적, 선형적 원리의 환원주의적 관점에서 상대색, 관계색에 기초한 색체계인 자연색체계의 연구는 불가능하였다. 연구자는 세계관과 색채체계원리가 밀접한 관련성을 가짐을 밝힘으로써 음양오행에 대한 사유로 전일적 관점을 취해왔던 동양의 오방색이 자연색체계로서 가능성이 있음을 논증하였다.
본 연구의 논리 전개는 색채계획의 규범적 단계에 해당하므로 동·서 사유체계와 자연색체계의 비교에 대한 고찰로 진행하였다. 그 진행의 과정은 다음과 같다.
첫째, 색채체계원리에 나타나는 동-서의 관점을 비교하기 위해 동아시아적 관점에서의 자연관과 서구적 관점에서의 자연관을 비교하여 살펴보았다. 전일주의적 세계관과 현대과학의 추이를 살펴본 결과, 색에 대한 과학적/철학적 관점에 대한 확인이 요구되었다. 색채지각 과정이 대응색원리와 다르지 않음을 확인하고, 자연색체계의 개념적 특징을 살펴보았다. 이 과정에서는 동-서 비교를 위해 다학제적 접근을 통해서 사고의 틀을 형성하고 문헌을 고찰하여 타당성을 검증하고자 하였다.
둘째, 먼저 동아시아의 사유체계인 음양오행원리와 오방색체계의 관련성을 밝히기 위하여 음양오행의 개념과 오행의 기본원리를 파악하고, 오방색체계의 의미상, 기호상의 분석과정을 통하여 자연색체계로서 오방색체계의 가능성을 확인하였다. 특히 색과 언어의 관계를 강조하여 ‘청’색 언어 개념을 재정의 하였다. 오방색체계가 대응색원리에 기초한 색체계라는 사실을 구조적 특성에 대한 이해를 통하여 확인할 수 있었다.
셋째, 서구의 색채체계 발전과정에 대한 이해를 위해 현대과학과 색이론의 발전과정을 뉴턴-데카르트적 세계관과 양자역학적 세계관의 전환에 대한 문헌자료를 바탕으로 확인하였다. 자연색체계(Natural Color System) 형성의 배경을 살펴보기 위해 대응색이론이 자연색체계(Natural Color System)의 기본개념임을 제시하였다. 또한 대응색이론의 발전과 자연색체계(The Natural Color System)의 체계화의 관계를 밝히기 위해 대응색체계와 대응과정의 현상색모델(Color Appearance Model) 발전의 전개과정을 살펴보았다.
넷째, 오방색체계가 자연색체계라는 이론의 타당성을 논증하기 위해 자연색체계의 기본개념과 도형적, 유형적 특징을 비교하여 두 체계의 차이와 공통점을 발견하고, 두 체계가 다르지 않음을 보여주는 도형을 제시하였다. 오방색체계의 기본원리가 NCS(The Natural Color System)과 동일함을 확인하고 자연색체계로서 가능성이 있음을 논증함으로써 오방색에 대한 체계적 연구에 대한 가치를 설명하였다.
끝으로, 연구의 결과가 색채체계연구의 발전에 유용하리라 기대하며, 자연색체계를 기준으로 색채환경의 개선을 이룩하고 삶의 질과 복지의 증진에 기여할 수 있는 독창적이고 새로운 연구로 앞으로의 발전에 밑거름이 되고자 하였다.
연구자의 부족한 지식에 의한 색채연구의 한계를 극복하기 위해 앞으로도 지속적인 관심과 노력이 요구된다. 본 연구는 연구자의 제한된 시각에서 이루어져 논리전개에 한계가 있으리라 예상되므로, 이후의 꾸준한 연구를 통한 보완이 필요하다고 본다. 규범적인 단계에서 전개하여 연구 결과의 실재성이 밝혀지지 않았으나 동-서 자연색체계의 비교를 시도하여 동아시아 문화 중심에서 색체계의 관점을 확고히 하고자 한 점에 연구의 의의를 두며, 미흡하나마 앞으로의 색채문화와 색채교육의 발전에 기여할 수 있기를 바란다.
; Humans evolve through interaction and adaptation to their environment. Color perception in human beings is a major factor in the process of their evolution. This study takes an interdisciplinary approach which explores environmental design paradigms as seen in comparison between the Eastern holistic and Western scientific systems approach to color perception.
Western physical scientific world-view tended to develop along a linear-rational, and reductive mode of inquiry. Whereas, environmental designers throughout the world have been informed by the realizations of Western science, these designers would do well to explore East Asian perceptual concepts of the physical world with their philosophical, holistic, nonlinear, and intuitive approaches for human adaptation to the environment.
This research attempts to blend and compare two approaches, Western and East Asian, to create a new interpretation and standard of color perception. To implement this study the natural color system based on the Opponent Theory of the well-known Western scientist, Ewald Herring will be compared with the traditional East Asian color model, Obang Color system. The Obangsaek represents a holistic system based on the concept of organic harmony in nature. This study seeks to identify similar features found the natural color system, based on Herings theory, and the Obangseak. Both systems could be described as natural color systems.
Obangsaek color system is much the same as the Natural Color System s principle. Both could be described as natural color systems. A comparative study of the two color systems, East and West, contributes to the scientific development of color system research. This comparison verifies the possibility of the Obangsaek system principle as natural color system, and contributes to the notion of the Natural Color System as standard of environmental natural color systems. It reinforces the usefulness and convenience of the natural color system, and demonstrates the necessity emphasizing of color education for cultural self-confidence and identity through the establishment and construction of color environments.
Since a unique sense of color planning is required, education for color creativity development must exist in order to improve the quality of life. The research method of this study attempts to confirm the formation of the background of color system and relation of color system development through comparison of East-West viewpoint. It is hoped; this research will establish the position of and verify the possibility of the Obangsaek system as natural color system. This studys focus not only confirms the relationship of these color systems with the human color environment, but with the human enterprise as a wished for normative theory of environmental design.
Extent of study and method for comparison east-west color system progressed as follows ;
First, to define the concept of natural color system, as demonstrated by comparing holism and modern science. This comparison encompasses the extant color system principle, philosophical, scientific viewpoints about color and compares the differences of east-west viewpoint regarding nature.
Second, to examine Umyang-Oheng (The sun and the moon five elements) principle as background for the principles of Obangsaek. This study shows that the Eastern color system and truth that Obangsaek principle is a natural color system.
Third, this system adopts a method that allows an understanding of the structural special quality through analysis of the concept, principle, and figure, to confirm its validity and to objectify the point that the opponent color theory is the principle point of natural color system. This is represented by the natural color system s systematization and development process of color theory that is natural color system of West Europe.
Fourth, It is to clarify that Obangsaek system is natural color system, and to show the opponent color principle of the Obangsaek principle is similar to that of the Natural Color System in concept, principle, diagram and symbol.
Fifth, it will demonstrate the creativity and developmental possibility of Obangsaek system as natural color system that has potential value for future color research. This study deals with understanding the value and modern meaning of Obangsaek system.
Sixth, The result of this study is to encourage future changes through a better understanding and the improvement of the color environment through seeing the necessity for including this cultural aspect in the color design process.
Finally, This thesis addresses the shortcomings of color education and and emphasizes the necessity for color research. This study will focus primarily on a prescriptive theory of color cognition in the area of environmental design.
2. The Viewpoint between East and West color system principles
In Comparison, the East-West concept about cosmology and nature recognizes the universe as a dynamic organism that coexists in time and space. Brought into question are the East Asian views concerning the structure of light compared to the Western views concerning the measurement and analysis about the intensity of light
The Newtonian-Cartesian World-view of modern science is shown to be limited. It lacks the intuitive world-view between the relationships of human beings to their environment
Therefore, it is time for a new science to make its entrance on the stage of environmental design. This science is based on an organic world-view related to existing scientific theories of quantum mechanics and relativity.
The study of color system principle is focused in quantitative step division by scientific measurement as paradigm converted to qualitative aspect that human s perceptive experience. The cognitive process that is represented by "universe = light = color" from the holistic viewpoint shows clearly the principle of Umyang-Oheng (The sun and the moon five elements). Obangsaek that is based in intuitive experience of this natural phenomenon appears in the structure of opponent color principle equally with Natural Color System. As conversion of holistic view, through Hering s research that was focused in opponent and relative color of the external and inner equilibrium of color dynamics. This was verified by explaining of the human sense system with intuitive experience. It was opponent color principle that became foundation of development of natural color system. Human color perception was understood in context of its environmental relation. Hering s opponent color theory became foundation of natural color systems, systematization process in Western Europe. Through systematization process, Natural Color Systems practical value is a useful environmental color system for color planning as developed and applied by Natural Color System.
3. Umyang-Oheng (The sun and the moon five elements) and Obangsaek
In chapter 3, circulatory thinking in East Asian viewpoint was confirmed truth that is based in intuitive experience was started from Umyang-Oheng (the sun and the moon five elements) principle. Even if systematized process through scientific and systematic access did not consist, it emphasized that Obangsaek has to be realized from a color system that explains the correlation of natural phenomenon through access in various kinds viewpoints.
Color cannot exist absolutely independent of time and space. Color is perceived through cultural background and the effect of its condition. The phenomenon itself simultaneously becomes as being and its meaning explains about its appearance being perceived and accomplished with a mutual relation through various phenomenons as opponent color. In this chapter, confirmed that conscious about peculiar color was in existence in east through process that truth that Obangsaek is natural color system principle proves validness logically in this chapter. Though it could not experience systematization process, if continuous research through access by various viewpoint and method consists, Obangsaek that development possibility is appears as color system principle is Eastern natural color system and development possibility is apparent as a color system principle that has creativity and intrinsic characteristics.
Obangsaek principle and be viewed as reasonable universal system, but it needs examples for systematization and development. Compared with Eastern Obangsaek it is reasonable to question about which character trait in natural color system needs be to accomplish in the systematization process upon, which principle is based.
4. Color system development process of West Europe and formation background of natural color system
It is proved already through research process of physics and optics that color (light) has the properties of both a wave and a particle.
Opponent-type system is in correlation with color system research and reflects human perception of the relation of light/color. Therefore, It has limit that is studied being converged in a field. It is possible to study through synthetic approach of physics, psychology and physiology in color research. Therefore, Natural Color System can pass through systematic research process in holistic viewpoint through interdisciplinary approach.
In chapter 4, it is a confirmed principle of opponent color that is similar to consist of fractal(自然) by confrontation relation to in principle such as constituent state. Opponent color principle that was solidified feature of each other accomplishing complementary relation and is a confirmed central principle in natural color system structure. The reason is circulation system opened by relation of this natural phenomenon is complementary and it is because is not different from principle that existing through corresponding continuous interaction of the relationships.
Herings Natural Color System develops a color system that can be apply easily as opponent color and as a relative color, supplementing Natural Color System s principle by explanation for veiled color triangle. Color Planning is especially important in Korea. Color is too often regarded by the general public and unfortunately by some manufacturers has something to be tacked on a product or inserted without regard in the environment of our cities or towns. Color under these conditions becomes an isolated event in the publics daily lives. The challenge for the designer and the colorist is to make color an integrated part of the man-made environment. The designer and the colorist can employ their understanding of human perception to create an appropriate and dynamic color environment for the enhancement of society s activities. In natural color system concept, point is opponent color principle that composed of three sets consisting of one pair in each set (example; set one : W-B, set two, R-G, set three: B-Y) of opponent color that can model the human perceptual experience. Hering s opponent color theory is confirmed in research of CIE s chromaticity diagram normalized in 1976, confirmed its universality as principle found in all places, as well as, in the principle of the natural color system. Because it is principle to understand human begins and nature (fractal), as well as, the principle feature of natural color system.
5. Reciprocate comparison of Obangsaek system and Natural Color System.
In chapter 5, Contents is the basis of the substance that is described in chapter Three and Four, which compared principle of color systems synthetic side with east-west reasonable system. Obangsaek color principle was verified opponent color system such as Natural Color System s principle. Also, Obangsaek color system proved natural color system with that opponent color system is natural color system principle. It was confirmed that 五·方·色 s principle is color system of opponent relation through part modification and transformation of diagram compare with CIELAB s opponent-type system research.
If adjust on principle and diagram Is same as following:
First, Obangsaek system(五方色體系) is consisted by opponent relation(靑, 赤, 黃, 白, 黑) of 5 basis color in basis color by principle, but Natural Color System is consisted by opponent relation(Y, R, B, G, W, S(svart)) of six basic colors.
Second, because of meaning of green(綠) has been connoted in blue(靑i) in Obangsaek system, division of blue and green gamut is not clear. But both of B(blue) and G(green) have absolute basis color in Natural Color System.
Third, basis elements (5 colors, 6 colors) of two color systems consist of opponent type system s color by principle and these basis color is developed by appearance color been perceived to human and color system as perception of nuance
Fourth, white(白) and blue(靑i) as opponent color are located in moved point 90°from black(黑) and red(赤) in right(東) side as diagram. Namely, black(黑) and red(赤), (黑)are located at point 90°from white(白) and blue (靑) on the left(西) side.
Fifth, according to analysis of diagram that being expressed to NCS Color Circle, basis chromatic color of Natural Color System is yellow(Y), red(R), blue(B)/green(G). According to the explanation about nuance, white(W), basis achromatic color is expressed with standard chromatic color (C) by black (S ; S vart) by NCS Color Triangle.
Sixth, In Obangsaek system, It could be verified similarity through comparing it with the opponent color system s principle and is not different from Natural Color System in modification on the diagram.
The positive results is that the Obangsaek system is a natural color system based on the circulatory and holistic view and that it is the same principle as the Natural Color System, systematized from new paradigm and background of new science(新科學).
Therefore, because there are potential capacities of systematization in Obangsaek system as natural color system, there should be continuous awareness and research carried forward on this subject. Development of possible Eastern natural color system is noted. This continued study of the current color problem through planned application and direction for the future improved color environment construction will be achieved through a systematic comprehension of Obangsaek principle that recognizes Eastern Asian symbolic color use, and the realization of a national cultural design identity development.
Comparatively the East-West color research needs to be expanded and its prescriptive theory explored for future revelations. Specially, color research is a field that has potential for research through reciprocity and cross-fertilization and a interdisciplinary approach. This connotes that the meaning of this research needs to be moved forward and refined by a more continuous effort and interest in the future. The dissemination of the Obangsaek system will bring about the establishment of creative color use and make a contribution to the understanding of colors role in culture, as well as, its contribution to a regional identity in the future. It is hoped that this research has contributed to the development of color research.
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