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현대 미니멀리즘 건축의 형성과 그 표현 특성에 관한 연구

Title
현대 미니멀리즘 건축의 형성과 그 표현 특성에 관한 연구
Authors
한혜진
Issue Date
2002
Department/Major
과학기술대학원 건축학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 과학기술대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
This study is on the development and features of expression of modern minimalism architecture through the following procedures: ■ Analysis on philosophical and historical background of the emergence of minimalism and its development. ■ Analysis on the formation of minimalism architecture and its development. ■ Analysis on the development of minimalism and its features of expression. Affected by minimal art and phenomenal science, minimalism architecture is typical and self-restorative, which is contrary to all non-typical and avant-garde architecture. Since today's minimalism architecture inherited the spirit of modernism, it gained popularity by emphasizing the way of self-expression and as a result, it became one of the general trends of expression.Deficient in abstract and decorative detailed description, minimalism art refers to the sculptures or 3-dimension pieces produced since the 1960s. Moreover, it regards discovered object, which means presenting objects that bears the least difference with non-artistic things in an artistic form. Minimal art derived in reaction to abstractionism in the late 60s and reached the zenith of modernism by achieving the characteristics of formal purism and self-restoration to the extreme degree. Minimal art gave ordinary art the characteristic of an art piece by not defining art as an artists means to express; and by introducing the relationship with art and the audience, it resisted the independence of art. Furthermore, it contributed to broaden the field of art by proving a certain concept or idea can be regarded as art. Minimalism architecture developed in earnest after minimal arts time passed, and the over 20 year-interval has led to the distinction of minimal art and minimalism architecture. Minimalism architecture denied the existing formal expression and focused on constructing a new future. In addition, it laid a great emphasis on simplicity and expression of physical properties. As a result, minimalism architecture reached the peak of simplicity. This simplicity prevails from religious buildings and temples in the past to modern architecture, which is based on economic logic. In regard to expressing physical property, it attained essential condition by utilizing steel, glass and concrete, which are the most modern materials. Today's minimalism architecture has various styles, among which there are some commonness such as minimization in expression and maximization in material features. The technical and sensitive development of current minimalism architecture has complementary dualism. In this thesis, it serves as a frame for analysis to extract modern features of expression and develops through related pieces based on each feature: A. Technical development 1. Research on pure formative arts The characteristic of minimal art shows a clear distinction with pieces of art that merely show general simplicity. The major difference between them is that it has restrained aesthetics when considering space, material and form. Minimalism focuses on the real essence of material, through which it perfectly expresses the spirit by applying the most simple and pure materials. 2. Research on material characteristics Similar to minimalism, which turned against extreme expression of Abstract Expression, and moved toward redefining the artistic doings and the art itself, modern minimalism also began to focus on material characteristics, which became the essence of architecture, by opposing the previous ways of expression. Needless to say, its emphasis on material was every architects interest; yet, it became the major feature of minimalism architecture through adhering strict features of the material and resisting the association of meaning, cultural identity, social condition, regardless of society, culture and history. 3. Technical accuracy Technical accuracy is regarded as a general trait of modern architecture. It is, however, an indispensable element in defining what is called minimalism architecture. Minimalism architecture seems to bear a simple and terse image perceived through a humans sensory organs. Yet, simplicity and consistency should not be the result of inevitable economics. Simple and terse images should be the result of sublimation of complexity , which accompanies centralization of wealth. Architecture which is simple, high in density, quiet and orderly, conventional and persistent requires accuracy least it should be caught in a trap of mere simplicity in times when natural resources are declining and environmental pollution is getting serious. 4. De-materialization One of the major features of minimalism architecture along with the emphasis on material is the non-materialization and De-materialization. De-materialization means revealing the importance of the relationship between the exterior and interior of the material by controlling its characters through operating human perception without directly showing its trait. B. Sensitive development 1. Creation of neutral space The term neutral space means space that is not slanted to one side. The dualism of technique and sensitivity, which modern minimalism architecture bears, has much to do with the vertical concept of space based on Western construction, horizontal concept of space, minimalism that developed from western paintings, and naturalism, which corresponds to Oriental concept of emptiness. The contrasts in space and thought involve neutral space that vertical/horizontal and artifact/nature meet. Today's minimalism architecture created a neutral space, which does not slant to one side in order to neutralize this kind of side effect. 2. Limit or expansion of space One of the features of minimalism architecture is that it reveals extreme openness and closure. If the density is low, it composes opened inner space. On the other hand, if it is high, then it constitutes closed inner space. The supposition of openness and closure of space is one of the elements of minimalism architecture, which determines how human experiences space and its characteristics. If the border of space is considered in the perspective of out to in, it limits the space and environment. However, if it is regarded in the perspective of in to out, it expands the space. Therefore, without borders, it is impossible to perceive space but experience limitless space. Modern minimalism architecture tends to show psychological expansion in limited closed space. These elements intend to overcome the limit of scope by emphasizing sensitivity that promotes light, shade, lightness, darkness, calmness and freshness. 3. Tension generated from light Minimalism architecture regarded light as an essential element of life in space of architecture, and focused on its value as a phenomenal object, regardless of the metaphysical aspect of the light. The stress of light is the result of emphasis on the emotional aspect, which, consequently, respects the spiritual characteristics of light. 4. Expression of locality Architectures who pursue local originality form abstract space, utilize ones experience, condition by long and continuous cultural code, traits of closed space and texture, as the concept of the origin of minimalism architecture. They intend to provide solid foundation and form a root of architecture that does not sway against change or trend. As modern minimalism architecture has become powerful under the incompleteness of modern architecture since the 60s, it has focused on pursuing the essence of architecture based on regional and Oriental sensitiveness along with western technology; and has aimed to newly construct architectures related to human life. In an era when randomly-built architecture is so widely spread, current minimalism architecture, which has its utmost fame in simplicity, remains as a precedent. Moreover, its strict consideration in material and stylish visual treatment are the intelligent creation of modern technology as well as the result of incessant study.;미니멀리즘이란 1960년대 회화와 조각에서 등장하였다. 조형 분야에서 미니멀리즘이 1960~70년대 미국을 중심으로 한 기술 형태적인 진보를 거치면서, 1980년대부터는 음악이나, 문학, 무용, 디자인 그리고 건축, 어떤 분야에 관해 이야기하든지 미니멀리즘 또는 미니멀(Minimal)이란 것이 이슈가 되었다. 일단 무엇이 꾸밈없이 간결하고 단순하며, 과장이 없으면 이제 미니멀리즘이란 용어로 읽혀지곤 한다. 이와 같은 현상에서 알 수 있는 것은 표현의 최소화(the minimum of expression)를 통해서 표현성의 극대화(the maximum of expressivity)에 도달하려는 것이 이제 모든 분야에서, 창조를 추구하는 사람들의 목적이 되었다는 것이다. 현대의 우리는 다양한 스타일과 유행의 혼합체들이 주의를 끌기 위해 서로 충돌하는 것을 목격한다. 현대와 같이 이미지, 형태, 소리들이 난무하는 시대에, 무엇을 감소시키고, 제거하거나 걸러내는 것은 결국 가장 설득력 있는 표현이 될 수 있다. 존재하지 않음(absence)이 존재하고 있음(presence)의 가장 두드러진 형태가 될 수 있을 때, 무언가 하던 것을 멈추는 것이야말로 가장 적극적인 표현이 될 수 있다. 이것은 단순히 무엇을 더하거나 무엇을 빼거나 하는 것을 의미하지는 않는다. 그것은 어떤 체계, 양식이라기 보다는 세상을 인식하는 방식, 기본적인 세계관에 가깝다. 건축은 어쩔 수 없이 그 시대의 보편적인 삶의 방식과 연결되어 있다. 건축은 시대의 사회상과 문화를 총체적으로 반영하는 시대 표현의 예술로 여겨진다. 이러한 관점에서 볼 때, 위에서 말한 현대 상황과의 관련 속에서 미니멀리즘 건축에 대한 새로운 해석과 방향성을 고찰해 보고자 시도하는 것은 필요한 일이다. 이 과정 속에서 미니멀리즘 건축은 그것의 가치와 역동성을 확보하게 될 것이다. 이에, 다음과 같은 과정을 통해서 현대 미니멀리즘 건축의 형성과 표현특성을 고찰해 보았다. 첫째, 미니멀리즘의 등장과 관련된 철학적, 미술사적 배경과 그 전개 양상을 고찰하였다. 둘째, 건축에서의 미니멀리즘 형성 배경과 그 전개 양상을 고찰하였다. 셋째, 현대 건축에서 미니멀리즘의 발전 양상과 그 표현특성에 대해 고찰하였다. 현대 미니멀리즘 건축은 다양한 양상을 보여주는데 최소한의 표현과 재료적 특성을 극대화한다는 공통점 외에 기술적 측면과 감성적 측면으로의 여러 표현 특성들의 가능성을 탐구한다. 현대 미니멀리즘 건축의 기술적, 감성적 측면의 발전은 상보적 이원성을 갖는다. 본 논고에서 이것은 현대적 표현 특성을 도출하기 위한 하나의 분석 틀로서 제시되며, 각각의 특성을 토대로 한 관련 작품을 통하여 전개된다. 이상의 연구결과와 같이 현대 미니멀리즘 건축은 근대 건축의 불완전성 속에서 60년대 이후 강하게 대두되면서, 서구적 기술성과 함께 지역성과 동양적 감성을 바탕으로 하여 건축의 본질을 추구하고 인간의 삶과 관련된 새로운 건축을 지향해 왔다. 현대 미니멀리즘 건축의 이와 같은 특성은 자위적(自爲的) 건축이 만연한 시대에 단순한 표현으로 돋보이는 선례를 남기고 있으며 재료에 대한 엄격한 고려와 세련된 시각적 처리는 현대 기술에 대한 지성적 창조이며 끊임없는 연구의 결과이다.
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