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消費者 保護 運動의 展開方向에 관한 硏究

Title
消費者 保護 運動의 展開方向에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE CONSUMER PROTECTION MOVEMENT
Authors
崔世元
Issue Date
1983
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
Keywords
소비자보호 운동전개방향일반사회
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
이근수
Abstract
한국은 60年代初부터 수행해온 經濟開發政策 以後 氣速한 經濟成長을 이룩했다. 이같은 經濟成長은 政府主導아래 이뤄졌으므로 企業에 많은 특혜를 주게되어 企業의 巨大化를 가져왔다. 그 결과 勢力이크게 伸張된 企業들은 少數이면서 價格操作, 不當利得, 買占賣惜둥 不公正去來行爲를 자행하면서 많은 문제를 惹起시켰으며, 그 중의 하나가 消費者問題이다. 消費者는 市場을 통하여 經濟生活을 영위 한다.消費者는 購買者로서 企業은 販賣者로서 市場에 참가하게된다. 이에 巨大化된 企業은 消費者와 세력균형을 유지하기 보다는 無視하기가 常例였다. 그런데 消費者는 효율적으로 대처할 수 있는 方案을 강구하지 못하고 다만 政府 當局의 行政措置에나 依存할 따름이었다. 그러나 政府當局에서는 經濟發展이란 課題를 달성하기위해 消贊者問題는 경시하기 마련이었다. 그러나 최근에는 消費者保護의 필요성과 중요성에 대한 認識이 높아져 1982年 9月 消費者保護法 시행령을 제정, 공포하여 이제서야 소비자보호운동은 法的 근거를 가지게 되었으나 先進國과 비교하면 아직 크게 미흡한 실정에 있다. 그리하여 本論考에서는 消費者保護의 背景과 消費者의 效用極大化를 위한 經濟理論的 分析을 하고, 美國ㆍ日本의 消費者保護運動과 우리나라의 소비자보호운동을 살펴보고, 또한 문제점을 찾아내어 그 바람직한對策을 論하였다. 그 결과 소비자보호의 成果는 消費者, 政府, 企業이 어떻게 주어진 任務를 완수하는 가에 달려있는 바 各主體別 대책은 다음과 같다. 消費者側에서는 소비자보호단체와 協力하여 商品에 대한 정확한 知識과 情報를 입수하며, 적은 피해라도 고발하는 태도를 가져야 한다. 또한 消費者 團結力을 확보하고, 소비자주권의식의 高揚에 最大의 努力을 기울여야 한다. 企業들도 商品의 宣傳, 廣告時 自社製品에 對한 正確한 知識과 情報를 입수하며, 장기적으로는 經營合理化에 의한 價格引下 및 品質向上에 注力해야 할 것이다. 또한 流通業者는 流通構造의 不合理性으로 인해 야기되는 價格引上을 最大限 억제해야만 할 것이다. 政府는 消費者의 權利와 이익은 市場이 경쟁적일때 保障받을 수 있으므로 寡占市場에 有效한 경쟁조건을 造成해 주고, 소비자보호행정을 一元化하고, 消費者保護 관계 법규를 보완하며, 소비자피해 구제제도를 확립해야한다. 또한 소비자교육을 學校 교과과정에 삽입해서 적극적으로 가르쳐야 한다. 이상 제시된 대책은 各主體別로 전개되어서는 효율성이 떨어지므로 各主體들이 서로 유기적인 협조를 해야한다.;Korea has attained rapid economic growth since she undertook an economic development policy under the auspices of the government after the beginning of the 1960s. Because this policy gave enterprises many privileges, it made them huge. As a result, enterprises whose economic power expanded widely, though a handful in number, gave rise to many serious problems by engaging in unfair trade practices-manipulating prices, profiteering or hoarding. The consumer problem is one of the serious problems. Consumers live their lives through the market. Consumers participate in the market as buyers and enterprises as sellers, huge enterprises neglected consumers rather than keeping a blance of power with them. Nevertheless, consumers could only rely on government action because they knew no other way to deal with affairs effectively. But the government gave a low priority to consumers problems in order to attain its imperative task of economic development. But though there has been a desirable increase in the recognition of the necessity and importance of the consumer protection movement, and we have had the legal basis for the consumer protection movement by the legislation of the consumer protection act, which was publicized in September, 1982, it is yet no match for the level of developed countries. In this paper, I have tried to analyze the historical back-ground of consumer protection and to examine the present conditions of the consumer protection movement in America, Japan and Korea comparatively. As we know, the effect of the consumer protection movement depends on how consumers, government and enterprises carry out their duties. Therefore, the following can be listed as each agent's agenda, from the result of my study. As for consumers, they must cooperate with the various organization of the consumer protection movement and obtain knowledge and information about products through them. Also they should unite themselves to try to enhance the sense of consumer sovereignty as much as they can. Then it is desirable to each consumer to be willing to complain about products, even i f the problems small. As for enterprises, they must furnish exact information to consumers when they advertise or promote their own products, and they should try to cut down the cost and to improve the quality of products by rationalizing management. Also the dealers of products should keep down prices as much as they can through free competition. As the rights and interests of consumers are maximized when the market is competitive, government must do its utmost to maintain effective competition in the oligopolistic market. At the same time, it should unify the consumer protection administration and supplement the related laws. Besides, in order to establish a system for consumer compensation, it is necessary to institution-alize a system f o r awarding damages when necessary. They must also put consumer education in the regular curriculum of every school and teach it to students vigorously. I f these actions, however, are taken by each agent separately, they have only limited effects. Thus each agent should perform these actions in full cooperation with the others.
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