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주택시장에서 소비자의 구매가치 평가요소와 마케팅 커뮤니케이션 적용에 관한 연구

Title
주택시장에서 소비자의 구매가치 평가요소와 마케팅 커뮤니케이션 적용에 관한 연구
Authors
김윤정
Issue Date
2001
Department/Major
과학기술대학원 건축학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 과학기술대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Up until the mid-1990s, the housing market of Korea had been characterized by shortage of housings whereby no competition among the construction companies existed. Consumers were duly satisfied with owning a house and thus the quality of housings was of no great importance. But owing to the governments persistent efforts to increase the supply of housings, the late 1990s saw a surplus of housings. Consequently, the environment in which the construction companies do business has drastically changed. There exist a great number of inventories of housings and the government pursues less intervention in the market, thereby deregulating many restraint policies. Moreover, the consumers standard of living has elevated over the years and this has caused them to seek for better quality of living environment. Hence, the competition among the companies has dramatically increased and the introduction of consumer-oriented marketing concept into the residential building industry became inevitable. Understanding and sat isfying needs of consumers have become one of the keys to successful business. Today, in the academic field, much emphasis is placed on the evaluation factors and the consumers preferences of living environment. But much paucity of research in reference to asset value of housings comparable to dwelling value of housings dissociates with real-world housing market. More specifically, in the evaluation of housings, the majority of studies are focused only on the quality of housings without addressing to financial aspects. Furthermore, in the study of consumers housing preferences and selection, there are extensive lists of housing attributes but, authors are reluctant to identify what specific attributes consumers perceive as those influencing the appreciation of asset value of housings. Indeed, compared to the past, consumers attach much importance to the dwelling value of a house. But practically, due to the fact that a house, to majority of population, is the most expensive product one ever purchases and that it has proven historically to be of profitable investment, the asset value of a house also much influences the consumers decision in purchasing a house. In this study, it is contended that it is this dual characteristic of housings, the dwelling value and asset value that consumers take into consideration when assessing the purchasing value of a housing. This study intends to identify the buyers influencing factors of housing attributes in the assessment of purchasing value of housings, that which constitutes dwelling value and asset value. Furthermore, this study suggests how these factors could be applied in marketing communications, specifically advertising communications. This study draws initially on literatures that contribute to the understanding of consumers decision-making process in the housing market and the value of housing in respect to consumers. The study also examines the advertising appeals by investigating house sale-related newspaper advertisements of the past one-year for the purpose of identifying the aspects of housings that are used in persuading and appealing to the targeted customers. Then, by means of empirical research, it seeks to identify the influencing factors in the assessment of value of housings. And finally, it suggests the application of results presented in this study to advertising appeals in advertising communications. The empirical research employs two-stage process: pilot survey and main survey. The market area selected for the study is restricted to those who are married and currently living in an apartment located at either Seoul or the new town, namely Ilsan and Poondang. The respondents are asked to fill out a questionnaire sheet which inquires the importance of 39 significant housing attributes in their assessment of first, the dwelling value and asset value of housings second, asset value alone and third, dwelling value alone when purchasing a house. The measurements of respondents responses employed in this research are rank-order and 5-point Likhert measurement. By utilizing PC-SAS program, percentage, standard deviation, frequency analysis, correlation analysis and Chi-square test were employed in the analysis of data with the sample size of 306. The summary of the results is as follows: 1) All of the 12 most salient factors in the respondents assessment of purchasing value were those of either/both 12 most salient factors of dwelling or/and asset value of housings. This highlights the contention that consumers assessment of purchasing value is comprised of assessment of asset and dwelling value of housings. 2) In the Likhert measurement on the consumers influencing factors of purchasing value of a house, factors such as security from crime, traffic noises, quality of natural environment achieved highest mean scores. But the rank-order measurement indicates that when purchasing a house, the house size is the prime factor consumers take into consideration. Next to house price, transportation convenience, building orientation, quality of natural environment, quality of schools, security from crime, attractiveness of view were of prime importance. It is analyzed that respondents consider transportation convenience and security from crime only after quality of natural environment and quality of schools are satisfactory. 3) Among the 12 most salient factors of purchasing value, house size, building orientation, traffic noises, quality of schools, attractive views, and house price differed in their mean score according respondents demographic and housing characteristics, with P-value significant at 0.05 level. 4) The correlation analysis showed relatively insignificant correlation between among the factors that influence the purchasing value of a house. The factors that had more or less high correlation coefficient were between brand image and the level of confidence in the construction company, purchased price and present market value, security from crime and privacy from outside, and quality of natural environment and traffic noises. 5) Regarding salient factors of consumers assessment of asset value of housing, house price, readiness of transaction, present market value, house size and building orientation scored highest in 5-point Likhert measurement. But in rank-order measurement, building orientation and quality of natural environment were of most priority of consideration next to house size and price. 6) The salient factors of consumers assessment of dwelling value of housing were similar to that of purchasing value factors, namely, traffic noises, quality of natural environment and security from crime. But in the order of consideration, respondents gave more prominence to house size, quality of natural environment, transportation convenience and building orientation. 7) Among the 12 most salient factors in the assessment of asset and dwelling value taken separately, house size, transportation convenience, building orientation, quality of schools and quality of natural environment overlap. And in respect to correlation between asset and dwelling value of housings, building orientation, attractiveness of views, and security of crime had correlation coefficient above 0.4, which is considered to be comparably high in this analysis. 8) The consumers assessment of purchasing value of housings seems to be more influenced by the dwelling value than asset value of housings. The results presented in this study could be applied to advertising communications such as the following: 1) The salient factors in the consumers assessment of purchasing value can be applied in selecting advertising appeals with reference to objectives of marketing strategies inclusive of product design concept. 2) The more influencing factors of consumers assessment of purchasing value depending on their demographic characteristics can be applied in determining effective advertising appeals to targeted customers. 3) The correlation among the housing attributes can be applied in connection with influencing factors in the assessment of purchasing value in determining advertising appeals. 4) The influencing factors in the consumers assessment of asset value can be applied in the advertising communications when emphasizing the investment value of housings. Moreover, it would be more effective in persuading consumers when these factors are those that coincide with the influencing factors in the consumers assessment of dwelling value of housings. For the purpose of providing better built environment for the society, this study is to serve both the researchers in the academic field and marketers for better understanding of consumers needs and influencing factors of housing attributes in the buyers assessment of purchasing value of housings.value of a house. The factors that had more or less high correlation coefficient were between brand image and the level of confidence in the construction company, purchased price and present market value, security from crime and privacy from outside, and quality of natural environment and traffic noises. 5) Regarding salient factors of consumers assessment of asset value of housing, house price, readiness of transaction, present market value, house size and building orientation scored highest in 5-point Likhert measurement. But in rank-order measurement, building orientation and quality of natural environment were of most priority of consideration next to house size and price. 6) The salient factors of consumers assessment of dwelling value of housing were similar to that of purchasing value factors, namely, traffic noises, quality of natural environment and security from crime. But in the order of consideration, respondents gave more prominence to house size, quality of natural environment, transportation convenience and building orientation. 7) Among the 12 most salient factors in the assessment of asset and dwelling value taken separately, house size, transportation convenience, building orientation, quality of schools and quality of natural environment overlap. And in respect to correlation between asset and dwelling value of housings, building orientation, attractiveness of views, and security of crime had correlation coefficient above 0.4, which is considered to be comparably high in this analysis. 8) The consumers assessment of purchasing value of housings seems to be more influenced by the dwelling value than asset value of housings. The results presented in this study could be applied to advertising communications such as the following: 1) The salient factors in the consumers assessment of purchasing value can be applied in selecting advertising appeals with reference to objectives of marketing strategies inclusive of product design concept. 2) The more influencing factors of consumers assessment of purchasing value depending on their demographic characteristics can be applied in determining effective advertising appeals to targeted customers. 3) The correlation among the housing attributes can be applied in connection with influencing factors in the assessment of purchasing value in determining advertising appeals. 4) The influencing factors in the consumers assessment of asset value can be applied in the advertising communications when emphasizing the investment value of housings. Moreover, it would be more effective in persuading consumers when these factors are those that coincide with the influencing factors in the consumers assessment of dwelling value of housings. For the purpose of providing better built environment for the society, this study is to serve both the researchers in the academic field and marketers for better understanding of consumers needs and influencing factors of housing attributes in the buyers assessment of purchasing value of housings.concept of housing, region, and city are changing in situation with continual development of information communication technology, that concept can be substituted for other. Because of concentrating on definition of concepts in this thesis, the direction of development that was suggested through development condition has to be modified with systematical and unified analysis.;오늘날 주택시장이 비로소 시장경제형으로 탈바꿈됨에 따라 주택건설업체들간의 경쟁은 더욱 치열해졌으며, 소비자들은 소득향상에 따라 주거욕구가 더욱 다양해졌다. 따라서 주택산업에 있어서도 소비자 욕구만족을 목표로 하는 마케팅 개념의 도입이 필연케 되었으며, 마케팅 역량은 기업의 생존을 가름하는 주요 요인으로 등장하게 되었다. 오늘날에는 주택개발에 있어서 단지 상품 중심적인 개념으로 주택의 질을 높이는 것이 아니라, 소비자의 욕구를 파악하고 이를 만족시키려하는 마케팅적 접근을 통해 주택의 질을 향상시키는 것이 필요로 하게 되었다. 그리고 이와 같은 소비자 중심적 마케팅 개념의 도입에 따라, 주택에 대한 소비자의 정확한 욕구 파악이 절대 필요하게 되었다. 소비자가 주택을 소유하는 목적은 主본능의 충족을 위한 거주목적과 가치보존수단의 투자적 목적이며, 이는 곧 주택의 거주가치와 자산가치로 이해될 수 있다. 그러나 기존 연구에서는 거주성 혹은 주거환경의 질적인 측면에 대부분 그 초점을 모으고 있어 오히려 실제 주택시장에서 흐름과의 괴리를 증가시키고 있다. 사회가 변화하고 소비자들의 생활 수준이 풍요로워짐에 따라 예전과 같이 주택을 단순히 소유개념으로서 인식하던 시대는 물론 지났으나 주택의 특성상 소비자들은 주택의 자산가치를 무시하지 않는다. 따라서 주택의 구매가치평가에 있어 소비자는 주택의 거주가치와 더불어 자산가치를 모두 고려하여 주택을 결정함을 인식하고 여기에 대한 종합적인 연구가 필요하다. 즉, 주택의 주거가치와 자산가치의 이중적인 특성을 고려한 보다 정확한 소비자 파악이 필요하며, 이는 곧 마케팅 전략 수립에 있어서 선결될 문제라 생각된다. 본 연구는 소비자가 주택구매 의사결정시 중요시 고려하는 주택요소들을 파악하는데 있어서, 기존의 연구와는 달리 주택의 투자가치를 단지 하나의 주택요소로서 보는 것이 아니라, 실제 소비자가 주택의 자산가치 혹은 거주가치 각각에 대한 평가시 고려하는 요소를 파악하는 것이 보다 정확한 소비자 파악과 이를 바탕으로 한 보다 효과적인 마케팅 전략 수립이 가능하다는 관점 하에 본 연구를 수행하였다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 설문지 조사법을 통하여 다음과 같은 사항들을 살펴보았다. 첫째, 소비자가 중요시하는 주택 구매가치 평가요소에 대한 일반적 경향과 둘째, 소비자의 가구 및 주거특성에 따른 주택 구매가치 평가요소 그리고 셋째, 이들 평가요소들 간의 상관관계를 파악해 보았다. 또한 넷째, 소비자의 주택에 대한 구매가치, 자산가치 및 거주가치 평가시 각각 고려하는 주택요소의 중요도와 우선순위 그리고 주택의 거주가치 및 자산가치 평가요소의 상관관계를 분석해 보았다. 마지막으로 본 연구에서 제시된 자료의 실제 주택 분양관련 광고커뮤니케이션에서의 적용방안에 대해 살펴보았다. 본 연구는 "소비자 지향적"인 경영이 절대 요구되는 오늘날, 거주자 중심적인 주거디자인과 더불어 이를 포괄하는 효과적인 주택 마케팅 전략 수립을 위해 주택의 이중적인 특성을 고려한 보다 정확한 소비자의 욕구를 파악하고자 하는데 본 연구의 의의와 목적이 있다.
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