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칸트의 이성종교에 대한 연구
- 칸트의 이성종교에 대한 연구
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- 대학원 기독교학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 이 논문은 인간의 종교성과 도덕성의 필수불가결한 결합에 관해 살펴보기 위한 시도에서 시작되었다. 인간이라면 누구나 그것이 인식에 의하건 도덕감정에 의하건 내면에서 양심이 지시하는 선함에 대한 부담이 있다. 그리고 자기를 희생하면서까지 선을 이루라는 요청은 종교로 갈수록 강해진다. 이 논문은 종교적 요구들이 특히 도덕적 요구들과 관련을 맺고 있음을 밝히며, 도덕적 요구를 자발적으로 감행하는 인간의 실천이성과 관련된 종교적 심성의 바탕을 또한 살펴보고 있다. 나아가서 도덕은 종교를 필연적으로 요청하고 있으며, 보편적이고 도덕적인 공감이 종교를 통해 어떻게 윤리적 사회를 건설하는데 이바지 할 수 있는지, 기독교가 도덕성과 종교성의 일치를 위해 어떤 식으로 재해석되고 있는지 살펴보면서 이상적이면서도 실천적인 원리들을 짚어보았다.
이 논문은 모두 5장으로 구성되어 있다. 서론에 이어 2장에서는 인간의 근원적이고 무제약적인 선의지로부터 출발하여 도덕법칙의 절대성 앞에 인간을 세우는 칸트의 윤리학을 실천이성비판의 변증론을 중심으로 분석론을 인용해가며 살펴본다. 3장에서는 2장에서 이미 실천이성이 그 이상적 완성을 위하여 인식으로는 불가능했던 신의 존재를 필연적으로 요청하기에 이르고, 이러한 도덕적 요소를 기존의 기독교 역사 위에서 재인식하며, 교학적 계시종교에서 도덕적 이성종교로의 인식의 전환을 곳곳에서 시도함을 볼 수 있다. 3장에서는 그간의 교학종교가 요구한 덕목들이 부역신앙으로서 성서의 정신에는 어긋나는 것이었음을 재해석해 내면서, 그의 이성종교론을 기독론, 계시론, 교회론, 신론, 종말론으로 조직신학적 재배열을 한다. 4장에서는 칸트의 이성종교가 주는 의의와 이성으로 편향된 해석들 때문에 받게 되는 비판들을 정리해 보았고, 현재 한국 기독교의 모습에 일침과 적용점으로 삼을 수 있는 것들을 소신대로 정리해 보았으며, 5장에서는 가장 종합이 활발하게 이뤄지는 곳인 사회와 종교의 영역, 특히 교회가 근본악과 어떠한 관련이 있는지를 보면서, 혼란 가운데서 초월의 가능성을 기대하면서 결론을 짓는다.
; Not to mention the experience of each individual, there are burdens in every man s conscience to do the good things. As for religion, we can hear much stronger commands to fulfill the goodness sacrificing ourselves. Thus this dissertation was planned to clarify the relationship between religious demands and moral ones, and to look into the ground of religious nature related to the Practical Reason, which recognize moral demands and perform them voluntarily. Furthermore it was intended to examine how the ethical consensus can build an ethical community by the help of religion, and which way the Christianity should be reinterpreted to unify the morality and religion.
For these purposes, we need to read our generation through Kantian age detouring post-modernity and investigating modernity. Kant has brought a Copernian turnabout in the way of cognition through his critiques. Modern era was an age of reason and physical discovery. Its main idea was that every natural event was determined completely by the law of cause and effect. This determinism lead to the conclusion that even the human behaviour and thinking were also fixed and the moral choice of man was impossible. Man and God were confronting each other, so were the nature and freedom. Kant felt he should give room for the free will of moral man preserving the foundation of modern science. Kant wasn t confined in the circuit of modernity and restored the status of religion which was driven into corner under the modern system. Of all things, Kant reconciled the Christianity with secular philosophy under the banner of morality realizing the limit of reason.
The age of reason and science which set human being up on the pedestal of subject, however, has gone and became a post-modern technique and mystery. Modern men are rushing to the meaninglessness, the lack of understanding, and the suspension of value estimation without finding absolute value that can protect them from the confusing values from the rough tide of new technology. Especially religion, which is susceptible to be regarded either as out-of-dates and irrational or sacred and inviolable, is oppressed its own transcendency and has no ability to lead society neither by piety nor by morality. The situation is similar to Kant s times and requires the work of reason on the religion urgently in the formation of modernity. Inquiring the modernity on the course of the post-modernity can provide premodern Korean religion, which couldn t go through the subjectivity that had formed the modern thinking, with true understanding of religion and morality.
According to Kant, the true religion called rational faith doesn t deny the revelation nor nullify man s free will and responsibility. Instead, rational faith suggests the viewpoint about religious service totally acceptable to God s eyes and generally agreeable to man. Besides, it declares that people should gather together under the true religion to establish the Kingdom of God, the world of freedom and peace which the universal good will dreams of. Kant urges that the historical Christian church built upon the revelation is rational enough to expand God s kingdom the way it should be and that we should begin its realization on earth.
This dissertation aimed at the universal and fundamental morality and religion, and the possibility of further development of the concept of rational faith in churches. It is made up of five chapters. The chapter 2 following the introduction starts with the demonstration of [The Critique of Practical Reason] about the inherent good nature of man, for Kant always begin his critiques and rational faith with it and return to it. He starts with man s original and unlimited good will and Imperatives. The fact that moral laws are given in the form of imperatives sets forth the free will of man that can break or keep the law as a premise. If there is no freedom in human behaviour, no morality would occur. So [The Critique of Pure Reason] provides the argument on the free will of man. Originally, as we know, Kantian critiques were written in the sequence from pure reason to practical reason, but here, I follow the development of [Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals] and [Practical Reason], which unfolds the metaphysical transformation from human consensus. In this way the practical reason postulates the existence of God, which was unable to the episteme, in order for the ideal completion of virtue.
In chapter 3, true religion within the limit of reason is examined in [Religion within the Limit of Reason Alone], where the mere possibilities(freedom, God, and immortality) which were analytically unthinkable are synthesized. In [Religion], unlike previous optimism, Kant starts with the original sin(fundamental evil) which corrupts the utmost standards of rule and overturns the values hierarchy. This dissertation deals Kant s view on the fundamental evil parallel to Augustine s original sin. With this trial, we can see that Kant coherently insists man is able and responsible for putting moral laws in force even though there is preexisting sin. For Kant, society is a scene of sin that corrupt the man s good nature, so he dreams of establishing the Kingdom of God on earth though the church, the ethical community under the divine moral law. But, the present dogmatic churches are deviated from the true religion which corresponds to the spirit of the Scripture to the slavery fetishism, so, he reinterprets the Scripture and calls upon to switch to the rational faith. Kant didn t classify his [Religion] as usual systematic theologians do, but this dissertation gave effort to reconstruct Kant s [Religion] along the systematic theological contents.
Chapter 4 deals with the criticism toward Kant especially about his subjectivity and the divine favor(grace). This chapter also reminds Korean Christian churches of what they are, where they are, and what they should do analysing Kant s postulates and thinking of its meanings. Finally, chapter 5 concludes that society and religion, where the synthesis occur most actively has many thing to do with fundamental evil, and looks forward the possibility of transcendence in the midst of confusion.
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