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예의, 정숙성과 심미성을 중심으로 한 대학생의 의복행동과 관련된 심리적 변인 연구
- 예의, 정숙성과 심미성을 중심으로 한 대학생의 의복행동과 관련된 심리적 변인 연구
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- 대학원 가정학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 硏究의 目的은 서울市內 男女 大學生을 對象으로（1）禮儀·貞淑性과 審美性을 中心으로 한 衣服行動의 特性을 把握하여（2）狀況別 禮儀·貞淑性 水準을 밝히고,（3）同調性, 男向性, 衝動性 및 自我槪念의 心理的 特性과 衣服行動과의 關係性을 糾明하는데 있다.
衣服行動의 測定道具는 modesty의 意味調査, 先行硏究에서 使用된 旣存問項 및 本 硏究者에 의해 새로 製作된 問項을 基礎로 構成하여, 이를 豫想 被檢査 對象者에게 豫備檢査를 실시한 수 問項分析을 통하여 製作되었다. 問項分析은 相關係數, Cronbach’s α信賴度 係數, 問項辨別度 등을 기초로 실시하였다. 衣服行動 測定道具는 敍述形 質問紙와 그림型 質問紙로 되어있다. 敍述形 質問紙는 禮儀·貞淑性, 審美性, 性的 魅力性, 經濟的 誇示性, 注意集中性을 包含한 5개의 變因으로 되어 있다. 禮儀·貞淑性은 貞淑性과 禮儀性의 2개 下位領域으로 構成되고, 審美性은 裝飾性, 衣服審美性, 身體調和의 3個 下位領域으로 構成되어 있다. 그림型 質問紙는 禮儀·貞淑性의 狀況別 水準을 測定하기 위한 것으로서 4개 狀況을 包含하고 있다.
同調性, 男向性, 衝動性의 測定道具로는 李相魯, 邊昌鎭, 陳渭敎의 ‘표준화성격진단검사’중 一部를 사용하였다. 自我槪念의 測定道具는 鄭元植의 ‘자아개념검사’를 사용하였으며, 이 檢査 중 本 調査에서 사용된 構成領域은 總自我肯定을 비록하여 自我同一性, 自我受容, 自我行動의 세가지 內的 自我準據體制와 身體的 自我, 道德的 自我, 性格的 自我, 家庭的 自我, 社會的 自我의 다섯가지 外的 自我準據體制로 構成되었다. 硏究對象으로는 서울市內 4개 大學의 男女大學生 중에서 2,3학년을 중심으로 552명을 標集하였다.
本 硏究의 結果는 다음과 같다.
1. 禮儀·貞淑性과 審美性은 相關이 없었으나 下位領域에서는 多少의 負的인 相關關係를 보였다. 審美性과 身體露出 防止를 나타내는 貞淑性은 負的인 關係를 보였고, 禮儀·貞淑性과 裝飾性은 女子의 경우 負的인 關係를 나타냈다. 性的 魅力性은 禮儀·貞淑性과는 相關이 없었고 審美性과 正的인 相關을 보였으며, 經濟的 誇示性 및 注意集中性은 禮儀·貞淑性과는 負的인 相關, 審美性과는 正的인 相關關係를 나타냈다.
2. 禮儀·貞淑性에서는 男女 間에 有意한 差가 없었으나 下位領域인 貞淑性에서는 有意한 差異를 보여, 女子는 男子보다 衣服에서의 身體露出 防止를 더 중요시 하였다. 審美性, 性的 魅力性, 經濟的 誇示性, 注意集中性도 女子가 男子보다 더 중요시 하였다.
3. 同調性은 女子의 경우 衣服의 禮儀·貞淑性, 審美性 및 性的 魅力性과 正的인 相關, 注意集中性과는 負的인 相關을 나타냈다. 男子의 경우 男向性은 禮儀·貞淑性과 正的인 相關을 보였으며 女子의 경우 男向性은 禮儀·貞淑性과 負的인 相關을 보였고, 男向性은 男女 모두 審美性과 負的인 相關을 나타냈다. 衝動性은 禮儀·貞淑性과 男女 모두 負的인 相關을 보였으며, 審美性과는 男子의 경우에만 正的인 相關을 나타냈다.
4. 全體的인 自我槪念을 表現하는 總自我肯定은 男子의 경우 禮儀性과 正的인 相關을 보였으며, 女子의 경우는 審美性 및 經濟的 誇示性과 正的인 相關을 나타냈다. 自我同一性과 自我行動은 男子의 경우 禮儀性과 正的인 相關을 나타냈고 內的 自我準據體制의 全體領域은 審美性과 女子의 경우에만 正的인 相關을 나타냈다. 道德的 自我槪念과 禮儀·貞淑性과는 男子의 경우에만 正的인 相關을 보였고, 여자의 경우에는 身體的·道德的·性格的·家庭的·社會的 自我槪念이 審美性과 正的인 相關을 보였다.
全體的으로 볼 때 男子의 自我槪念 變因은 禮儀性과 正的인 關係를 보였고, 女子의 自我槪念 變因은 審美性과 正的인 關係를 보였다.
5. 禮儀·貞淑性 水準은 狀況 및 性別에 따라 有意한 差異를 보였고, 狀況과 性別에 따른 相互作用 효과가 있었다. 男女 모두 禮儀·貞淑性 水準이 가장 높은 狀況은 ‘敎室에서 수업을 할 때’였고, 가장 낮은 것은 ‘집에서 가족과 있을 때’였다. 女性服에 대한 禮儀·貞淑性은 女子보다 男子가 더 중요시하여 자기 자신을 포함한 一般的인 身體露出에 대한 見解와는 다른 結果를 보였다.
6. 禮儀·貞淑性은 成長地에 따라 有意한 差가 없었으나 審美性은 서울·부산 地域에서 성장한 사람이 其他地域에서 성장한 사람보다 더 높은 水準을 보였다.
7. 衣服行動 各 變因은 專攻系列에 따라 有意한 差를 보여, 禮儀·貞淑性은 人文社會系와 自然系가 중요시 하는 편이었고, 藝能系가 가장 관심이 낮았다. 審美性은 藝能系가 가장 중요시 하였다.
; Two important human aspects, modesty and aesthetics, have been asserted since early days to be the origins of clothing, and today they are important motivation and purpose of wearing the clothes.
Modesty has the implication of preventing the body-display related to sexual aspects and decency by the way the clothing is worn, and the standard of modesty changes depending on the situations. On the other hand, aesthetics functions to induce one to make one’s appearance handsome through beautiful clothes and decoration. According to Flugel, modesty and aesthetics, the two factors that have motivated human clothing behavior, are correlated in such a way as to allow the human being the choice either of ambivalence or compromise of the two.
The expressive function of clothing is also known to have a close relation with the psychological aspect. Clothing discharges the vital role of revealing the wearer’s traits of personality, and the wearer’s perception of his appearance partially constitutes his total self-conception of appearance of clothing is obviously part of his perception of appearance. In this sense, clothing in closely related to psychology and one’s clothing behavior has much to disclose his psychological aspect.
The purpose of this study was three-fold:（1）to examine the characteristics of clothing behavior in terms with modesty and aesthetics,（2）to determine the levels of modesty for different occasions, and（3）to disclose the relationship of clothing behavior with such psychological features as conformity, masculinity, impulsiveness and self-concept.
The clothing behavior scales were developed for this study and the study was carried out through investigation of modesty concepts and item analysis. In the item analysis, correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s α-reliability coefficient and item discriminating power were calculated out. The scales were constituted with a descriptive questionaire on five（5）variables of modesty, aesthetics, sexual attractiveness, economic display and attention seeking; modesty had two sub-scales of body display prevention and decency, aesthetics had three scales of decoration, dress aesthetics and personal becomingness. In addition, a questionaire concerning drawings of female dress was designed to measure the modesty levels in four（4）different situations.
For measurement of conformity, masculinity and impulsiveness, a portion of “Personality Inventory” by Sangro Lee, Changjin Byeon and Wuigyo Jin was used, while Wonshik Chung’s “Self Concept Scale” was adopted for measurement of self-concept. The scales of self-concept used for this study were composed with total positive self, three（3）inner self standard systems of self-identity, self-satisfaction and self-behavior, and five（5）external self standard systems of physical-self, moral ethical self, personal self, family self and social self concept.
Sample subjected to this study were 552 students, both male and female, of four（4）different colleges in Seoul, Korea. The collected data were calculated to factor analysis , mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, T- tests and F-tests.
The followings were the results of the study.
1. Modesty and aesthetics were revealed to have no correlation. But in sub-scale, as they showed a negative correlation, aesthetics had a negative correlation with body display prevention, and modesty had a negative relation with decoration. Sexual attractiveness had no relation with modesty while having a positive relation with aesthetics. Economic display and attention seeking had a negative relation with modesty but a positive one with aesthetics.
2. Modesty showed no significant difference between male and female while showing it in the virture of body display prevention which is of the sub-scale, proving that female is more prudent than male in body display. It was also proved that the female gave more importance to aesthetics, sexual attractiveness, economic display and attention seeking than the male did.
3. Conformity had, in case of the female, a positive relation with modesty, aesthetics and sexual attractiveness, whereas a negative one with the attention seeking. In case of the male, masculinity showed a positive relation with modesty, but a negative one in case of female. Both male and female showed a negative relation between masculinity and aesthetics. Impulsiveness had a negative relation with modesty in both male and female, showing a positive relation with aesthetics only in case of the male.
4. The total positive self, which was the overriding self concept, showed a positive relation with decency in case of male, and the same with aesthetics and economic display in case of the female. The self identity and self behavior showed a positive relation with decency in case of the male, and the whole scale of inner self standard systems revealed the positive relation with aesthetics only in case of the female. The moral ethical self concept was positively related with modesty only in case of the male, with the female discolosed a positive correlation of aesthetics with physical, moral ethical, personal, family and social self concepts.
5. Modesty showed significant differences of level depending upon situation and sex, presenting significant interaction effects as the situation and sex variables. Both female and male responded with the highest level of modesty on the situation of ‘attending lectures in the classroom’, and the lowest when ‘at home with family’.
6. Modesty showed no significant difference caused by regional areas one was raised up. But it was showed that one who was raised up in large city such as Seoul and Pusan gave more importance to aesthetics than one who was raised up in the other regions.
7. Each variable of clothing behavior showed significant difference caused by one’s major field of study. One who majored in natural science, liberal arts and social science gave importance to aesthetics and the least interest in modesty.
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