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The future of sanitary measures under the GATT and the SPS Agreement

The future of sanitary measures under the GATT and the SPS Agreement
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국제대학원 국제학과
이화여자대학교 국제대학원
세계무역기구(WTO) 출범 이 후에 자유무역을 위하여 회원 국가들은 관세 및 비관세장벽을 낮추고 있다. 특히 한 나라의 위생기준은 비관세 무역장벽이 되기 쉬운 위험성을 가지고 있다. 그리하여 세계무역기구에서는 그 기준이 자유무역에 위반이 되는지의 여부를 가려내기 위하여 위생조약 (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement) 하에 심판을 하게 된다. 이 논문은 최근 세계무역기구의 분쟁조절기구(DSB)에서 다루어졌던 오스트레일리아 연어사건, 유럽연합 호르몬 수입쇠고기 사건, 일본 농산물 사건 등 3가지 사례를 통하여 SPS 조약이 어떠한 것인지 또한 문제점은 무엇이 있는지 분석했다. 수입국이 특정 위생법을 가지고 수입을 거부할 경우에는 반드시 그 근거가 국제기준에 맞추어 있거나 과학적인 증거에 기반이 되어있음을 증명해야 제재를 받지 않는다. 한 나라의 위생기준이 보호주의의 한 도구로 이용이 되고 있는지 아닌지를 구별하기가 쉽지 않고 그 기준을 판단해 주는 SPS 조약은 그 역사가 짧아 아직 보완되어야 하는 점이 많다. 특히 개관성을 높이기 위해 사건에 개입이 되는 제 3국의 역할이 강화되어야 한다. SPS조약은 어떠한 나라나 단체를 위한 것이 아니라 소비자들의 안전한 식품에 대한 선택의 권리를 위한 것이다. ; This thesis analyzes the meaning of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement) and its relation with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 dealing with sanitary measures through examining relevant cases that have been considered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement body. According to the SPS Agreement, Member countries are encouraged to comply with international standards in setting their sanitary measures. However, they can devise their own measures that have higher standards, if they are necessary for maintaining the health of their people, animal or plant life and if there is scientific justification for the escalated standards. Raising standards over the international ones can be also justified by appropriate assessments of risks, as long as the approach is not arbitrary but consistent. To settle the possible dispute that can arise between its member countries, the WTO dispute settlement body decides whether the Member accused of unfair trade practices has actually applied sanitary measures that is arbitrary and inconsistent with the WTO agreements. The following suggestion ought to be considered for the SPS Agreement in the future to ensure the procedure s efficacy and justness. First, a special subcommittee of the SPS Committee should be established to take charge of sanitary measures. Such subcommittee will strengthen the process of examining the scientific evidence that is submitted by interested parties to a dispute. Such an approach will enhance credibility of the dispute settlement procedures. Second, selection of third parties for the dispute settlement process should be done prudently, because the third party s role can affect the panel s decision in the long run. Third, the third parties must be chosen from interested parties who are non-disputants and outside disinterested parties in order to obtain a wealth of relevant scientific evidence and to ensure fairness in the dispute resolution process.
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