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杜甫 七言律詩 硏究

Title
杜甫 七言律詩 硏究
Authors
노우정
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
대학원 중어중문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
杜甫의 七言律詩에 대한 성취는 역대로 높은 평가를 받아왔으나 이에 관한 기존 연구는 형식에 대한 단편적인 고찰에 국한되었으며 내용과 풍격에 대한 연구는 초보적인 수준에 있었다. 이에 본고는 杜甫의 七言律詩에 대한 전면적인 연구의 필요성을 절감하여 杜甫 七言律詩를 安史亂 以前 時期·戰亂時期·成都 草堂時期·夔州 및 그 以後 時期로 시기를 나누고, 내용·형식·풍격을 망라하여 전반적인 연구를 진행하였다. 그 결과 杜甫의 七言律詩에 관한 역대의 평가가 결코 지나친 것이 아님을 확인할 수 있었다. 安史亂 以前 時期의 杜甫 七律은 初唐의 唯美主義 영향으로 模倣 단계에 있었다. 戰亂時期는 安史亂 以前 時期의 모방적인 창작에서 도약하여 개성 있게 창작함으로써 큰 발전을 보였다. 成都 草堂時期는 이전의 창작경험을 바탕으로 성숙하고 完美한 작품을 창작함으로써 완숙한 단계로 진입하였으며, 夔州 및 그 以後 時期는 내용과 형식에서 대담한 혁신을 보여 다양한 풍격을 드러냄으로써 七律의 새로운 境界를 개척하였다. 이처럼 杜甫는 模倣·發展·完熟·革新의 단계를 통해 七律體를 완성시켰기에 七律 발전에 지대한 공헌을 하였다. 내용면에서는 먼저 다양한 제재를 사용하여 七言律詩의 표현범위를 확대한 것을 들 수 있다. 初盛唐의 시인들은 奉和와 應制를 위주로 하여 제재가 협소하였으나 杜甫는 이를 탈피하여 어떠한 題材이든 七言律詩에 편입시킴으로써 意境을 확대시킬 수 있었다. 또한 抒情詩가 주류를 이루었던 七律에 敍事的 요소를 증가시킴으로써, 抒情·敍事·議論을 융합하도록 하였다. 이로써 七律로 敍事하고 議論하는 기풍을 조성하였다. 杜甫는 七律의 고유한 형식 특징을 발전시켜 그 수준을 제고시켰을 뿐 아니라 실험정신을 十分 발휘하여 형식상에 새로운 시도를 하여 뛰어난 성취를 거두었다. 煉字에서는 入神의 경지에 들어갔으며 동시에 聲律美를 심화시켰다. 口語와 俗語를 자유자재로 사용함으로써 친근감을 지니게 하였고, 詩語의 善用으로 詩意를 풍부히 하였다. 특히 連作詩와 拗體詩의 도입은 七言律詩의 고정된 형식에 새로운 생명력을 불어넣게 함으로써, 杜甫 七律에 새로운 이정표를 세웠다. 杜甫는 大同小異했던 初盛唐의 詩風에서 벗어나 淸新婉約, 蕭淡婉麗, 沈鬱頓挫, 雄渾悲壯, 沈渾富麗와 같은 風格을 創新하였기에 七言律詩가 다양한 풍격을 반영할 수 있는 詩體임을 새롭게 인식케 하였다. 杜甫는 七律형식을 대대적으로 革新하여 그 특성을 集大成함으로써 예술성을 최고의 경지까지 끌어올릴 수 있었다. 그 결과 五律이 주도했던 唐 詩壇에 七律을 중시하여 作詩하는 분위기를 高潮시켰다. ; Successively, It is evaluated very high that achievement for Tu-Bo s stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters. But existing researches about this have been localized in fragmentary inquire into form and researches of contents and remarkable character(風格) have stayed at rudimentary level. Therefore, I have felt keenly necessity of overall research about Tu-Bo s stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters, so I devide it into four times - time of before Ansa warfare(安史亂 以前時期), time of the Ansa warfare(戰亂時期), time of the Seongdo thatched cottage(成都 草堂時期), time of the Gyju and after the time of Gyju(夔州及其以後的時期) - and have get along with research, comprising content, form, and remarkable character. In the result, I am sure that successive evaluation for Tu-Bo s stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters is not too much. Tu-Bo s stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters before the Ansa warfare stayed imitative. Tu-Bo s in the time of warfare made rapid progress by excelling Tu-Bo s in the time before the Ansa warfare and creating writings idiomatically. Tu-Bo s in the time of the Seongdo thatched cottage was putted into maturity, because it was created maturely and bigotedly, and Tu-Bo s in the time of Gyju and after the time of Gyju cultivated new boundary of stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters, which displayed various remarkable character which show a bold innovation. Like this, Tu-Bo contributed to development of stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters by completing a style of stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters throughout a phase of imitation, development, maturity and innovation. In the aspect of contents, It can be cited that Tu-Bo use various materials and extend expressive boundary. Poets in the early and prosperity-T′ang(初盛唐) gave the first consideration to the poem for the king, so material is limited. But Tu-Bo could extend a boundary of the poem because he escaped from limitation and could let any materials be admitted into stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters. Also, he fused lyricism, epic and consultation by increasing epic elements in stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters in which lyric poetry had formed main stream. Hereby, he seted descriptive and consultative trait with stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters. Tu-Bo raised a level by development of peculiar formal feature of stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters, as well as he got excellent achievement by showing inspective mind and making a new attempt of the form. He entered into state of the god in the improvement of words and deepened rhythmical beauty(聲律美). He let it have intimate emotion by using an oral language and slang language freely and let poetic meaning be rich by making a good use of poetic word. Specially, He established milepost by introducing poem which sequence more than two poems(連作詩) and accent-varied poem(拗體詩), and putting liveliness into fixed form of the stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters. Tu-Bo made recognition that a stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters can reflect various remarkable character, because Tu-Bo escape from a poetical style which was substantial identity with negligible differences and created remarkable character which is fresh and mediate, restful and indirect, melancholy and disheartened, grand and tragic, and inactive and brilliant. Tu-Bo could maximize artistical character by innovating a form of the stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters extensively, then achieving a synthesis. Consequently, Tu-Bo increased surroundings that the poet writes a poem under the importance of the stanza of eight lines with seven-chinese characters in poetical circles that a stanza of eight lines with five-chinese characters leaded.
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