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현악 정악의 장단별 붙임새 연구

Title
현악 정악의 장단별 붙임새 연구
Other Titles
(A) study on the rhythmic structure in the Hyunak Jeong-ak, the court music for the original Korean stringed instruments
Authors
이지영
Issue Date
2002
Department/Major
대학원 음악학부
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본 연구는 현악 정악에서 각 악기의 선율을 이루는 음들이 장단에 따라 어떤 붙임새의 원칙에 의하여 출현하는지,또한 이러한 붙임새는 악기간 어떤 공통점과 차이점이 있는지 고찰한 것이다. 이를 위해 가야금·거문고·양금 정악의 각 악곡을 20정간 장단·10정간 장단·6정간 장단·12정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단·4정간 장단 등의 6가지 장단으로 분류하여 붙임새를 살펴 보았다. 1. 기본 붙임새 현악 정악은 각 장단별로 기본적인 구조를 이루는‘기본 붙임새’가 있으며,세 악기의 기본 붙임새는 장단별로 거의 동일하다. 20정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 20/4이며,10정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 10/4이다. 또한 6정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 6/4이며,12정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 12/4이다. 12정간 4대강 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 12/8이며,4정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는 4/4이다. 이들 중 20정간 장단·10정간 장단·6정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단·4정간 장단 악곡의 기본 붙임새는‘쿵’(○)을 중심으로 하여 양분된다. 그리고 12정간 장단의 악곡의 기본 붙임새는‘떵’(ⓘ)을 중심으로 3등분 된다. 이러한 현악 정악의 기본 붙임새는 20정간 장단·10정간 장단·12정간 장단의 악곡에서는 장단의 모든 장구점에는 항상 음을 붙여주는 특징이 있다. 그러나 6정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단·4정간 장단의 악곡에서는 대체적으로 장구점 중‘떵’과‘쿵’에서 항상 악기의 음이 출현하며,예외로 거문고의 『웃도드리』와 양금의『웃도드리』·「상현도드리」·「염불도드리」에서는‘떵’에서만 음을 항상 붙여준다. 따라서 현악 정악에서 장단의 첫 정간인‘떵’에서는 언제나 악기의 음이 붙여진다. 2. 잔가락 붙임새 현악 정악은 위와 같은 기본 붙임새 외에 여러 연주법들에 의해 다양하게 꾸며지는‘잔가락 붙임새’가 나타난다. 가야금 정악에서는 박자 분할·슬기둥·싸랭·뜰동·연튕김·앞꾸밈음 등 6종류의 잔가락 붙임새가 나타나며,거문고 정악에서는 연튕김을 제외한 5종류의 잔가락 붙임새가 나타난다. 또한 양금 정악에서는 박자 분할·앞꾸밈음 등 2종류의 잔가락 붙임새만이 나타나 종류가 가장 단순하다. 잔가락 붙임새 중 박자분할과 앞꾸밈음은 세 현악기에서 공통으로 나타나며,그 중 가장 보편적인 잔가락 붙임새는 박자 분할이다. 또한 슬기둥과 싸랭은 거문고에서 많이 나타나고,뜰동은 가야금에서 많이 나타난다. 그리고 박자 분할 및 앞꾸밈음은 양금에서 가장 많이 나타난다. 연튕김은 주법상 가야금 정악에서만 나타난다. 이렇게 악기에 따라 잔가락 붙임새가 다르게 나타나는 것은 악기의 특성에 따른 연주법의 차이에 의한 것이다. 잔가락 붙임새는 악곡의 속도와 관계가 있는 것이 있다. 즉 슬기둥은 주로 느린 20정간 장단 및 중용 속도의 6정간 장단(특히 거문고 정악)의 악곡에서 많이 쓰이며,뜰동은 6정간 장단이나 12정간 4대강 장단과 같이 중용 속도의 악곡에 많이 쓰인다. 그 외에 박자 분할·싸랭·연튕김·앞꾸밈음 등은 악곡의 속도와 관계없이 현악 정악 전체에서 나타난다. 또한 잔가락 붙임새는 느린 악곡에서는 대체적으로 가야금 정악에서 많이 나타나는 경향이 있고,빠른 악곡에서는 양금 정악에서 많이 나타난다. 잔가락 붙임새가 출현하는 위치는 장구점과 긴밀한 관계가 있다. 즉 잔가락 붙임새 중 슬기둥·싸랭·뜰동은 현악 정악의 전체 악곡에서 거의 일관되게 장구점이 있는 장단의 중요 점수에서 나타난다. 슬기둥과 싸랭은 주로‘떵(ⓘ)’과‘쿵(○)’에 나타나는데,12정간 장단의 악곡에서는‘떵’에서만 나타난다. 또한 슬기둥은‘쿵’보다는‘떵’에서 더 빈번히 나타나는데 반해,싸랭은‘떵’보다는‘쿵’에서 더 빈번히 나타나는 특성이 있다. 뜰동은 주로 장구점에서 나타난다. 이에 반해,박자 분할·연튕김·앞꾸밈음은 장단에 따라 나타나는 위치가 다르다. 즉 박자 분할은 20정간 장단·10정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단·4정간 장단의 악곡에서는 장구점이 없는 정간에서 나타나는데 반해,6정간 장단·12정간 장단의 악곡에서는 장구점에서 나타난다. 다만 6정간 장단 악곡에서는 박자 분할이‘떵’과‘쿵’에서는 드물게 나타난다. 연튕김은 20정간 장단·10정간 장단에서는 장구점이 없는 정간에,6정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단에서는 장구점에서 나타난다. 그리고 앞꾸밈음은 20정간 장단·12정간 4대강 장단에서는 장구점이 없는 정간에,10정간 장단· 6정간 장단·12정간 장단·4정간 장단의 악곡에서는 장구점에서 나타난다. 이상과 같이 현악 정악의 붙임새에는 기본 골격을 이루는 기본 붙임새와 이에 덧붙여 잔가락을 만들어 주는 잔가락 붙임새가 있다. 거문고·가야금·양금 등 세 현악기에 나타나는 기본 붙임새는 장단별로 동일하여 세 악기가 같은 원칙으로 장단에 음을 붙여 나감을 알 수 있다. 그러나 악기별로 많이 쓰이는 잔가락 붙임새의 차이에 의해 각 악기의 독특한 가락이 만들어지며,잔가락 붙임새가 가지는 고유의 특징은 현악 정악의 전체 악곡에서 지속적으로 지켜지는 경향이 있다. ; The purpose of this work is to analyze the rhythmic structure of the Hyunak jeong-ak, a genre of traditional Korean chamber music for literati and upper-classes. For this work, I specifically examined the jeong-ak pieces for the three stringed instruments such as gayageum, geomungo and yanggeum. To begin with, let me introduce the six kinds of rhythmic categories of hyunak jeong-ak that I studied for this work. They were ; 20 jeonggan jangdan, 10 jeonggan jangdan, 6 jeonggan jangdan, 12 jeonggan jangdan, 12 jeonggan-4 units jangdan, and, finally, 4 jeonggan jangdan. The each rhythmic category was classified by jeonggan, a set of squares which is to signify rhythmic emphasis in chongganbo. The chongganbo was mensural notations developed during the reign of King Sejong in the 15th century in Korea. Through the observation of the six types of jeonggan jangdan, I have come to conclude that there are two major rhythmic structures in jeong-ak for the stringed instruments (hyunak jeong-ak). They are named as the basic rhythmic structure and the jangarak rhythmic structure each. The main characteristics of the two rhythmic structures of the hyunak jeong-ak can be summarized as follows. 1. The basic rhythmic structure. The basic rhythmic structure is commonly found in all rhythmic cycle (jangdan) of the hyunak jeong-ak, court music for the stringed instruments such as gayageum, geomungo and yanggeum. Let me explain first how the rhythmic pattern of the hyunak jeong-ak is being structured. For instance, the type of 20 jeonggan jangdan is composed of 20/4, and that of 10 jeonggan jangdan is composed of 10/4. In the same term, the 6 and 12 jeonggan jangdan are composed by 6/4 and 12/4 each. The 12 jeonggan-4 units jangdan is formed by 12/8, and, finally, the 4 jeonggan jangdan is composed of 4/4. The main characteristic of the basic rhythmic structure of the hyunak jeong-ak lies in the appearance of the instrumental sound. The appearance of the each instrumental sound has a tendency to demonstrate the identical characteristic according to each jeonggan jangdan style. For instance, while the 20, 10, 6, 12-4 units, and 4 jeonggan jangdan are divided into two sections around by the point of kung [koung]’<‘쿵(○)’>, the 12 jeonggan is divided into three sections around by the point of tung[twung] <‘떵(ⓘ)’> of the hourglass drum. Secondly, the solo instrumental sound is appeared as a regular basis in every beating point of the hourglass drum for the case of 20, 10, 12 jeonggan jangdan. In contrast, however, it is appeared only at the tung[twung]’< 떵(ⓘ) > and kung[koung]’< 쿵(○) > points for the case of 6, 12-4 units, and 4 jeonggan jangdan. Finally, for the case of ut-doduri in geomungo, and ut-doduri, sanghyun-doduri and yumbul-doduri in yanggeum, the solo instrumental sound is appeared only at the point of tung[twung]’< 떵(ⓘ) > of the hourglass drum. In short, the solo instrumental sound is no exceptionally occurred at the beating point of the hourglass drum sounded tung[twung] , the first jeonggan of one jangdan in the hyunak jeong-ak. 2. Jangarak rhythmic structure Another representative rhythmic structure of the hyunak jeong-ak is called jangarak rhythmic structure. Jangarak rhythmic structure can be defined by a term that is composed of various ornament notes or a particular rhythmic pattern that are usually added to the basic rhythmic structure. With respect to the jangarak rhythmic structure, the four characteristics are commonly discussed as follows. The first characteristic of the jangarak rhythmic structure in the hyunak jeong-ak is that the three stringed instruments, gayageum, geomungo, and yanggeum, have a tendency to show their own rhythmic structures according to the different performance style of the each instrument. Let me review the various features of the three stringed instruments associated with the jangarak rhythmic structure one by one. 1) There are six kinds of jangarak rhythmic structure in jeong-ak gayageum. They are ; rhythmic division·sulgidung·saraeng·tuldong·consecutive flicking method and front ornament notes. 2) As for geomungo jeong-ak, the jangarak rhythmic structure is composed of exactly same as the jeong-ak gayageum except the consecutive flicking method. 3) In the yanggeum jeong-ak, there are only two kinds of jangarak rhythmic structures, such as the rhythmic division and the front ornament notes. Although the rhythmic division and the front ornament notes are commonly found in the all three stringed instruments, the rhythmic division is considered as the most popular one among the various types of jangarak rhythmic structures. While the sulgidung and saraeng are appeared most frequently in the geomungo jeong-ak, the tuldong is found most frequently in the gayageum jeong-ak. On the contrary, the rhythmic division and the front ornament notes are easily seen in the yanggeum jeong-ak, and the consecutive flicking method is only appeared in the gayageum jeong-ak. On the other hand, some of the jangarak rhythmic structures in the three stringed instruments are involved with the speed of the melody. For example, the sulgidung is appeared in somewhat a slower music pieces like 20 jeonggan jangdan and in a medium speedy music pieces like 6 jeonggan jangdan., as commonly seen in the geomungo jeong-ak. In addition, the tuldong is mainly used for the medium speedy music such as 6 jeonggan jangdan or 12-4 units jeonggan jangdan. However, the other styles such as the rhythmic division·the saraeng·the consecutive flicking method and the front ornament notes are appeared in whole section of the hyunak jeong-ak regardless the speed of the melody. All in all, considering the frequency of the jangarak rhythmic structures in the hyunak jeong-ak, it shows higher point in the gayageum jeong-ak when the melody is slower but same thing happens when the melody is speedy in the yanggeum jeong-ak. The second characteristic of the jangarak rhythmic structure in the hyunak jeong-ak lies in the close relationship with the beating point of hourglass drum. For example, first, sulgidung·saraeng·tuldong are encountered at a fixed point of the rhythmic circle in the hyunak jeong-ak. That is, sulgidung and saraeng are usually appeared at the point of tung’< 떵(ⓘ) > and kung’< 쿵(○) >, however, they occur only at the point of tung’in the music piece for 12 jeonggan jangdan. Secondly, whereas sulgidung is encountered more often at the point of ‘tung’than kung’, saraeng is encountered at the point of kung’. Finally, tuldong is appeared most frequently at the beating point of hourglass drum. The third characteristic of the jangarak rhythmic structure in the hyunak jeong-ak is the fact that depend on the type of jangdan (rhythmic cycle), the point where the three styles of the jangarak rhythmic structures such as the rhythmic division, the consecutive flicking method and the front ornament notes, are appeared tends to be shown inconsistency. Let me briefly describe these factors as follows. 1) As for the music pieces of 20·10·12-4 units and 4 jeonggan jangdan, the rhythmic division is appeared in a jeonggan where the beating point of hourglass drum is paused. However, the music pieces of the both 6 and 12 jeonggan jangdan accompanies the beating point of hourglass drum. 2) The second factor is the consecutive flicking method. There are two situations where the consecutive flicking method is employed. The first situation is concerned with the music pieces of 20 and 10 jeonggan jangdan for which the consecutive flicking methods is presented to a jeonggan where the beating point of hourglass drum is absent. The second one is related to the music piece of 6·12-4 units jeonggan jangdan for which the consecutive flicking method is incorporated with the beating point of hourglass drum. 3) The third factor is the front ornament notes. The front ornament notes for the music piece of 20 and 12-4 units jeonggan jangdan are used in a jeonggan where the beating point of hourglass drum is paused. However, for the music piece of 10· 6·12·and 4 jeonggan jangdan, the front ornament notes are accompanied with the beating point of hourglass drum. In conclusion, there are two major rhythmic structures in the hyunak jeong-ak. The first one is named as the basic rhythmic structure which constructs the frame of the whole melody. The second one is called as the jangarak rhythmic structure that adds a various rhythmic techniques to the basic structure. Against the basic rhythmic structure, the three stringed instruments, gayageum, geomungo and yanggeum, show the almost same style in accordance with each rhythmic cycle, and simultaneously share the identical form of the sound appearance. However, it is notable that the three stringed instruments keep their unique melodic styles caused by the particular jangarak rhythmic structures that they comprehend.
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