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일본의 정치개혁에 관한 연구

일본의 정치개혁에 관한 연구
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대학원 정치외교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 논문에서는 일본 내에서 정치개혁의 문제가 어떠한 과정에 의해 제기되었으며, 이러한 정치개혁이 요구된 근본적인 원인이 무엇이었는지를 검토해 보았다. 분석결과를 몇 가지로 요약하여 그것이 지니는 함의를 제시하면 다음과 같다. 기존 문헌들은 정치개혁의 결과물인 정치개혁안 분석에만 치중하여 일본 정치권 내에서 정치개혁을 실시하도록 한 근본적인 정치부패의 원인을 제대로 규명하지 못하였다. 따라서 이 논문은 기존 연구들을 보완하기 위하여 일본 내의 정치개혁 움직임의 분석을 통해 정치부패의 근본적인 원인을 밝히는 한편 정치개혁안의 문제점을 제시하여 일본에서 실시된 정치개혁을 분석하는데 중점을 두었다. 전후 일본에서 나타난 정치부패는 정치자금이 많이 드는 일본 고유의 선거제도인 중선거구제도, 정당을 대신하여 정치자금을 공급하는 후원회제도, 정경유착을 통한 정치적 부패를 낳는 파벌, 뇌물과 물질적 지원의 관계로 형성되는 집단 지향적 정치문화관 등의 요소가 복합적으로 작용하여 나타났다. 일본 내에서 정치개혁의 문제가 본격적으로 거론되기 시작한 것은 1988년의 리쿠르트 사건 이후이다. 기존의 정치부패 사건이 소규모의 사건이고 여론에 크게 부각되지 않았으며, 정치권 내부에서 이들 사건을 축소 은폐하는데 성공하였기 때문에 정치개혁에 대한 필요성이 강하게 제기되지는 못하였으나 여·야의 정치가들과 관료들이 이 사건에 연루되었음이 여론에 의해 드러나자 정치개혁을 실시하게 되었다. 하지만 정치개혁의 의지로 통과된 정치개혁법안을 살펴보면 이 개혁안이 정치부패의 원인인 여러 복합적인 요소들을 개혁하는 것이 아니라 선거제도의 개혁에 치중하고 있음을 알 수 있다. 이는 후원회와 파벌이 중선거구제 때문에 발전하였으며, 따라서 선거구제도를 개혁한다면 정치부패 문제를 해결할 수 있으리라는 생각에서였다. 하지만 선거제도를 개혁한다고 해서 일본 고유의 정치 문화적 관행에 의하여 자리 잡은 후원회제도와 파벌이 사라질 것이라고 보기는 어렵다. 이에 일본에서 행해진 정치개혁은 미완의 제도적인 정치개혁이었다고 평가할 수 있으며 일본 정치개혁의 지속성과 실현에 대한 지속적인 연구가 필요하다고 하겠다. ; This thesis examined how the political reformation was brought up and why such movement took place in Japan. Analyzed findings were classified into several categories. Following in the characters for each category. Exiting literature tend to analyze and to political corruption which lead the political reformation movement to trace government corruption. Also, by presenting problem in reformation bills, I focused on analyzing Japanese political reformation. Political corruption in Japan after the war, was cause by many compounded reasons, such as medium sized constituency, Japan’s unique election system to need a lot of political funds a supporters association to supply political fund instead of party, a faction and corruption from conglutination between government and businessmen a group consciousness from the group supplying bribes and material support. It was 1988 after Recruit affair when reformation was first brought up seriously previous political incidents were small and never reported in front page. Politicians have been successful to cut and to hind from public need of reformation were never powerful presented. However, public has found out assemblymen and governments were related in Recruit affair. This incident leads the reformation. The theme of reformation bills was reforming of medium sized constituency. Medium sized constituency system was recognized as main obstacle for new politics. Under this system, to hold a majority each party must have multiple candidates in a constituent. These candidates from the same party have to compete with each other at the same constituency to be elected, they must belong to some sort of faction to be supported or need to organize a supporters’ association to secure one’s politics. With this system injustice and corruption are likely exist in order to prepare outrageous political fund. Politicians already had a view of reforming election system for fundamental reformation on political system. Even after reformation, Japan is facing serious problems still. Election system has changed to small size. But in this system, political activities became more intense, territorial and blood on the contrary. This shows that injustice and corruption, government and business union are not only affect on election system. When we take close look at reformation bill itself is to reform election system not the causes of corruption in politics. They believe that faction and supporters’ association prospered through medium sized constituency therefore, if they cal charge the election system corruption and injustice problem could be eliminated. However, it is very difficult to believe that reformation of election system will bear delimiting faction and supporters/ association. Theme for election system was changed medium sized constituency to small constituency election also embraces many problems. Under medium sized constituency election canvassing system and its fund were supplied by personal supporters’ association or faction leaders rather than the party. And this custom was accused to bear corruption and factionalism. Therefore, politicians think that in a small sized constituency no multiple candidates from the same party will run at the small sized constituency and the service compete will disappear. But in small sized constituency boundary in so narrow, almost same as mayor election. Therefore one with more reputation locally has better chance to be elected. To change to the small sized constituency the supporters’ association might disappear they thought. As you can see 1994 reformation bill was rather than systematic reformation eliminating of corruption was limited by election reformation. Roots of such corruption are in election, faction supporters; association and their unique political, cultural practice, only election became a target of reformation. As a result, I like say that Japan’s reformation if unfinished systematic reformation and continuous study for maintaining Japan’s reformation is needed.
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