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연령 단계별로 본 노인에 대한 태도
- 연령 단계별로 본 노인에 대한 태도
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육심리학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 본 연구는 각 연령단계의 한국인들이 갖고 있는 노인에 대한 태도를 심리학적 측면에서 측정하기 위해 시도되었다. 본 연구는 그 첫 단계로 노인에 대한 태도검사를 제작하였다. 태도검사의 영역은 노인심리학에서 다루어지는 심리영역들인 노인전망과 이미지, 노인의 신체, 노인의 지적능력, 노인의 성격특징, 노인의 적응 및 대인관계, 노인의 은퇴 및 경제적 능력, 노인의 가족관계, 그리고 노인복지 등의 8영역으로 구성되어 있다.
본 연구는 각 연령단계의 노인에 대한 태도를 비교하기 위해, 한국 사회에서의 생활 적령기에 근거하여 연령단계를 아동기(9-12세), 청년기(13-25세), 성인기(26-39세), 중년기(40-59), 노인기(60세 이상)를 구분하고, 각 연령에 걸쳐 남녀 1,149명을 조사대상자로 선정하였다. 또한 각 개인의 사회심리적 일반특성이 노인에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 본 연구는 연령, 성별, 교육수준, 생활정도, 종교의 유무, 노부모(조부모)의 생존여부, 동거여부, 노인의 자녀에 대한 경제적 의존여부, 노인의 자녀에 대한 경제적 지원 여부, 노인의 건강이라는 10개 요인에 따른 태도의 차이를 검증하였다.
따라서 본 연구는 노인에 대한 태도가 연령단계별, 심리영역별, 개인의 일반특성별로 어떤 차이가 있는지를 알아보기 위해 t검증과 F검증, 다원회귀분석을 하였다. 그 결과, 노인에 대한 태도는 전연령단계 및 심리영역에서 비교적 긍정적인 것으로 나타났다. 이는 선행연구나 일반적인 사회통념과는 달리 노인에 대한 부정적인 고정관념이 비교적 적음을 시사한다. 그러나 발달적 측면에서 볼 때, 이러한 노인에 대한 태도는 발달적 연령증가에 따라 점차 부정적인 추세로 변했다. 이러한 변화는 연령단계에 따른 하나의 흐름을 나타났다. 즉 노인에 대한 태도는 아동기에 가장 긍정적이며, 이러한 태도가 청년기에 이르러 점차 부정적이 되어 성인기와 중년기까지 지속되지만, 노인기에는 이러한 부정적이 태도가 가속화되는 추세를 나타냈다.
노인에 대한 태도에 유의하게 영향을 미친 심리영역은 적응, 대인관계, 노인복지, 신체특성 등의 영역이었다. 이를 세분해보면 가장 긍정적으로 반응한 심리영역은 노인복지, 노인의 가족관계였고, 가장 부정적으로 반응한 심리영역은 지적 능력과 신체적 측면이었다.
노인에 대한 태도에 결정적 영향을 미친 개인특성은 노인의 생존여부 및 경제능력으로 나타났다.
; The facts of aging are characterized by such bodily changes as is summarized in five ERs(comparative words): small-ER, slow-ER, weak-ER, and few-ER. This means is size or in function as one gets older. Such aging facts helped stigmatizing the aging process and elderly people as unpleasant, hopeless, depressing, boring, ugly, decrepit, senile, etc., and forming negative attitudes and stereotypes toward the aged. Such stereotypes and negative attitudes used to be and has been still a source of isolation or disengagement to old people. It is interesting to note that the position of the aged differs according to the nature of society and to the particular age stratification system.
Numerous studies have been attempted by many researchers using various methods to measure attitudes toward the aged. Some studies reported largely negative perceptions and others reported positive attitudes. The present research sought to examine the attitudes the cross-generational people today in Korea have toward old people. A measuring scale have been constructed in this research in order to serve purpose of the study.
For the present research, five age groups were set for the attitude analysis: childhood(9-12 years of age), adolescence(13-25 years), adulthood(26-39 years), middle age (40-59 years), and the old people(over 60 years of age). Psychological phases of aging which are supposed to be the attitude variables were divided into following eight categories: 1) the future and images of old people, 2) physicals aspects of old people, 3) intellectual abilities of old people, 4) personality characteristics of old person, 5) social adjustment and inter-relations, 6) retirement and economic abilities of old people, 7) family relationships and, 8) welfare of old people. Ten independent variables, which are supposed to give influence on such attitudes, have been selected to use in this study. They are 1) age, 2) sex, 3) education level, 4) religion, 5) whether old parents(or grandparents) are alive or not, 6) whether they live together in the same household or not, 7) living standard, 8) financial dependability of parents (or grandparents) on their children, 9) their financial ability, and 10) health of old parents (or grandparents). Total subjects included in the study were 1,149, randomly chosen from primary schools, middle schools and high schools, universities, works, and homes, and etc. Results have been analyzed applying simple frequency, percentage, t-test, Ftest, ANOVA, Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test and multiple regression analysis.
Results is except the old generation other our generations showed a tendency to have more positive attitude toward the aged than the existing studies. Duncan test revealed three groups of attitude: attitudes were found to be the most positive in the childhood, to slope gently in the adolescence, adulthood, middle age, and to go abruptly down in the elderly stages.
By age groups, the result of the study may be described as following: childhood, four variables achieved significance (p<0.05) in three attitude variables. This means that subjects were more positive toward the three categories of family relationship, personality characteristics of old people, and welfare for old people when they replied that their grandparents were alive, they were in good health, and they lived together, and they were financially independent of their offsprings.
Significance by sex was found for adolescence, at the level of p<0.01, that male subjects were favorable toward the personality characteristics of old people Subjects, who replied that their grandparents were alive, were positive toward physical aspects of old people, social adjustment and interrelations, personality characteristics, and family relationships, yielding a significant correlation at the level of p<0.05, respectively. By variables that are associated with financial independence, there was as evidence of significant probability (p<0.05) toward personality characteristics of old people, and welfare (p<0.01). in the case whether having religion or not, the result indicated significance toward the future and image of old people (p<0.05), personality characteristics (p<0.05, and toward the retirement and financial ability (p<0.001). The people who has religion showed a more positive attitude toward the elderly.
For adulthood, significance by sex was found at the level of p<0.05 in the family relationships, and male subjects expressed positive attitude. Subjects who replied that their old parents were alive, regarded significantly positive (p<0.05) in three attitude variables such as social adjustment and interrelations, retirement and financial ability, and family relationships. Subjects living together with old parents showed positive attitude at the significant level of p<0.05 toward to future and image of old people.
For middle age, there was an apparent evidence of significant sex differences, the female subjects represented a much more negative attitude than male counterparts.
The elderly group showed conspicuously negative attitude as compared to the other four age grougs. By variables, female subjects perceived a more negative attitude toward the physical aspects of old people, and the retirement and financial ability. The old respondents living financially independent of their offsprings viewed old people positive in the welfare of old people.
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