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朝鮮後期 咸鏡道地域의 商業 硏究

Title
朝鮮後期 咸鏡道地域의 商業 硏究
Other Titles
Research on Hamkyungdo commerce during the late Chosun dynasty
Authors
고승희
Issue Date
2001
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
조선후기 사회는 양란의 피해를 극복하는 과정에서 내부적인 변동을 겪고 있었다. 특히 농업생산력의 증가에서 비롯된 경제력의 발전과 생산관계의 변화는 중세적 사회·경제질서 전반에 대한 인식의 변화를 초래하였다. 생산력 발전에 따른 잉여산물의 상품화로 상품유통부문이 독립된 경제영역으로 성장하였으며, 국가의 부세운영 방식도 새로운 경제질서에 부응하여 조정되었다. 이에 따라 농업경제를 근간으로 하였던 기존의 사회체제에서는 중요성을 인정받지 못하던 非농업지역의 성장도 가능하게 되었으며, 경제성장을 기반으로 지역의 位相을 제고하려는 움직임이 활발하였다. 함경도와 평안도는 조선후기에 경제적 성장을 통해 지역 위상을 새롭게 수립해가던 대표적인 지역이었다. 특히 함경도는 王朝의 發祥地라는 상징적인 가치에도 불구하고 건국이래 정치·경제·사회·사상 면에서 중요성을 인정받지 못하고 있었다. 이 지역은 조선 건국 이후에야 영토로 편입되어 다른 곳과는 이질적인 성격이 많이 남아있었으며 지형적 조건으로 인해 농업 기반이 미약하여 국가경제에 대한 기여도가 거의 없었다. 전란 이후에는 대부분의 지역이 對淸防禦線의 바깥에 비정되어 국가정책적 측면에서 지역발전은 전혀 거론되지 않았다. 그러나 17세기 말부터 함경도는 높은 인구증가추세를 보였으며, 특히 北關과 압록강, 두만강 강변지역이 개척되어 새로운 생활근거지가 형성되고 있었다. 함경도의 주민들은 주로 어업, 광업, 채삼업 등에 종사하였는데, 이들 산물은 상품판매를 전제로 한 것이었다. 또한 내륙지역에 유입된 인구도 行商 활동의 유인 요소가 되었다. 이에 따라 함경도 전역에서 商品流通經濟의 발전이 요구되었다. 함경도 전 지역을 연결하는 도내 교통로와 서울 등 전국 소비지를 연결하는 流通路도 확보되었다. 17세기 말부터 내륙지역에 유입한 주민들에 의해 함경도 전역에서 새로운 도로가 개척되었는데, 이는 군사목적보다는 주민의 생활 편의를 위한 것이었다는 점에서 이전 시기와는 차이를 보였다. 官의 기찰을 피해 상품유통의 이윤을 확보하려는 상인들에 의해 기존의 官路 바깥에 새로운 도로가 만들어졌으며 서울 및 평안도, 황해도와 연결되는 교통로도 개설되었다. 海路의 이용도 늘어 18세기 말에는 동해안에서 상품유통이 일반화되었으며, 19세기에는 동해안―남해안―서해안―京江에 이르는 전국 해로를 이용한 船商의 활동이 활발하였다. 상업 발달에 따라 도내의 장시수가 증가하여 19세기에는 인근 읍 사이에 場市網이 연결되고 수 개의 읍을 연계하는 場市圈이 형성되었다. 또한 상업규제가 심하던 북관지역에도 장시가 개설되고, 상인의 왕래를 통제하던 禁所가 폐지되었으며, 화폐사용 지역이 확대되는 등 상인들의 활동 영역이 南關에서 北關으로 확대되었다. 함경도지역의 대표적인 상품은 北魚와 北布로서, 대부분 최대소비지인 서울로 운송되어 魚物廛이나 布廛을 통해 판매되었다. 그러나 18세기 후반부터 私商들에 의해 서울 외곽에 상품유통중심지가 증설되자 함경도 상인의 활동지역도 확대되었다. 또한 새로운 유통로의 개척으로 경기도 일대의 場市나 강원도, 황해도, 경상도 내륙지역에서도 북어 등이 거래되었다. 19세기에는 전국 해로를 이용하여 함경도의 상품이 대량으로 船運되기에 이르렀다. 또한 蔘産地인 평안도 江界와 함경도 三水·甲山지역간에는 蔘을 중심으로 한 특산물 유통체계가 형성되어 있었다. 會寧과 慶源에 개설되었던 北關開市도 18세기 중반 이후 지역민의 경제활동영역으로 적극 이용되면서 함경도 지역경제에 커다란 영향을 미쳤다. 청과의 긴장관계가 해소되면서 公市는 형식화되는 반면, 私市와 馬市가 활기를 띠었는데, 특히 淸馬와 朝鮮牛의 교역이 큰 비중을 차지하였다. 만주지역의 개발에 따라 청은 농우를 필요로 하였고, 조선은 국내 말 수요를 청마에 의존하였기 때문이었다. 함경도의 상업이 성장함에 따라 상품유통을 담당하는 전업상인층도 형성되었다. 특히 北商은 함경도의 상업발달을 주도한 상인으로서 元山일대의 어물상과 육진의 布商이 중심이었다. 이들은 京商이나 松商 등과 함께 전국을 무대로 활동하는 사상집단이었다. 북상은 원격지 교역에 필요한 운송조직과 수단을 갖춘 大商人으로 그 내부에는 資本主·船主 및 직접 운송을 담당하던 遠隔地 褓負商·船商 등 다양한 상인이 있었다. 또한 함경도의 주요 물화집산지에는 대규모의 자본을 소유하고 특정상품의 유통을 장악한 富商大賈도 성장하였다. 이들 가운데 특히 관권과 유착하여 진상용 특산물의 거래에서 독점이윤을 획득하던 營底都賈의 활동이 활발하였다. 또한 북관개시의 경제적 효용성이 증대됨에 따라 전문무역상인인 市商도 형성되었다. 상업 발달로 인한 경제력의 성장으로 함경도지역의 기근대책이나 재정운영도 변화하였다. 함경도의 기근구제를 위해서는 다른 지역의 곡물을 이전하는 방법이 가장 일반적으로 사용되었으며, 이는 交濟倉의 설치로 제도화되었다. 그러나 18세기 후반부터는 교제창의 진휼기능이 변질되어 일반 還穀과 마찬가지로 재정기구로서의 성격이 강화되는 한편, 미곡상인들의 활동을 이용하여 賑資를 마련하는 경우가 점차 증가하였다. 이는 함경도지역에서 미곡선상의 활동이 일상적으로 활발하게 전개되고 있던 현실을 적극 이용한 것이었다. 상인들로부터 거두는 商業稅의 종류도 증가하였다. 함경도에서 가장 많은 상업세를 거두는 곳은 德源府의 元山浦였다. 원산에서 징수하는 상세는 덕원부 뿐 아니라 監營의 재원으로 쓰였는데, 중앙관아에서 그 이익을 노려 折受를 꾀하기도 하였다. 19세기에는 함경도의 재원을 중앙재정으로 전용하는 사례도 늘었다. 이는 조선의 재정 위기에 따라 나타난 전국적인 현상이었지만, 건국이래 田稅조차 상납하지 않았던 함경도에서 중앙 재정을 보충하게 되었다는 점은 함경도의 經濟的 位相이 높아지고 있었음을 보여주는 것이라 할 수 있다. 함경도 내의 경제중심지도 성장하였다. 원산은 18세기 초부터 동해 해로를 이용한 물화수송의 요지로 도내 최대의 경제중심이었다. 또한 감영소재지인 함흥도 18세기 중반부터 도내 특산물의 買集場으로 경제적 기능이 강화되었다. 원산과 함흥이 경제중심지로 성장하면서 이곳에 인구가 밀집하여 都會로서의 모습이 나타나는 한편, 이로 인한 사회문제도 발생하기 시작하였다. 18세기 후반부터 이 지역에서는 火災가 자주 일어났는데, 이는 인구증가에 따른 도시문제의 성격을 띤 것이었다. 특히, 함흥은 18세기 중반부터 화재 피해가 가장 빈번하였다. 피해를 입은 가구 중에는 戶籍에 編籍되지 않은 이들이 많았는데, 함흥의 도시적 성장에 따라 유입되어 도시빈민을 형성한 인구로 보인다. 화재피해를 막기 위해 덕원부에서는 汲水契를 편성하기도 하였다. 이는 상업중심지인 元山이 도시로 정비되어 가는 과정이었다고 할 수 있다. 조선후기 함경도지역의 상업활동은 전국의 경제발전을 선도하는 것은 아니었지만, 전국적으로 확산되어 가던 상품유통경제의 양상을 동일하게 보여주고 있다. 이는 조선후기의 경제 성장이 특정지역의 先進性에 의해 이루어진 것이 아니었음을 의미한다. 조선후기 사회는 경제적 측면에서도 전국이 등질적으로 통합되어 가고 있었던 것이다. ; The late Chosun Dynasty was going through the internal transformation in the process of restructuring the national system after a war. Especially, economic development and change of the production system, which all resulted from the agricultural production growth, led to the change of people s understanding about the overall social and economic order of the medieval ages. Commercialization of the surplus products caused by the production power increase laid foundation that the production distribution was able to develop as an independent economic realm. The nation tax levy system also changed according to the new economic order. Non-agricultural areas, of which the importance was not recognized because everything in the existing society had been based on the agricultural economy, was made possible to develop. In addition, there were active movements by various regions in order to upgrade their status with increased economic power. Hamkyungdo(咸鏡道) and Pyungando(平安道) were two representative regions in late Chosun Dynasty which were trying to refine their regional status with economic growth. Especially, Hamkyungdo had not been recognized its regional importance in the matters of politics, economy, society, and philosophy despite of its symbolic value that the Dynasty was originated from Hamkyungdo. Hamkyungdo had little contribution to the nation economy for a couples of reasons. First of all, it had many different natures from the other areas since its region was incorporated into the nation s land only after the establishment of the Chosun Dynasty. Second, Hamkyungdo had very weak agricultural foundation due to its topographical conditions. Regional development was not an issue in terms of the national strategic policy because most regions were located off the defence line against the Ching(淸) after a war. But, Hamkyungdo had had a very strong population increase rate since the end of the 17th century, and new living places were forming after the cultivation of riverside around the Yalu River(鴨綠江) and Tu-man River(豆滿江). The resident of Hamkyungdo were engaged mainly in fishing, mining, collecting Jinseng, and etc. for the purpose of selling those products because Hamkyungdo had many restrictions in agriculture. In addition, the inland population inflows was an attracting factors for commercial activities of supplying living necessities. Therefore, development of the commercial distribution economy was necessary in all areas of Hamkyungdo. In order for the commercial economy of Hamkyungdo to grow, it was necessary that Hamkyungdo secured the product distribution channel which connected not only all areas of Hamkyungdo but also the national consumption regions such as Seoul. New roads had been developed in all regions of Hamkyungdo by the people incoming into inland since the end of 17th century, but these roads were different from the past in their nature because they were built for living convenience, not for the military purposes. New roads were built off the existing public roads, and the roads which linked to Seoul, Pyungando, and Hwanghaedo(黃海道) were also constructed. All these roads were the product distribution channels utilized by merchants who were seeking profits from these distributions avoiding the government s inspection. Use of sea roads also increased that the product distribution in East Sea became very common in 18th century, and the movement of commercial ships which used the national sea channel linking East Sea, South Sea, West Sea, and the Kyungkang(京江) were very active in the 19th century. The number of markets in Hamkyungdo also increased as commerce was developing, and in the 19th century, the market network was formed among nearby towns and the market circle was established connecting several towns. Moreover, new markets were open in the Bookkwan(北關) where commercial restriction had been severe, and check points where traffic of merchants had been prohibited were abolished, and more and more places started using money. Commercial stages for merchants were extended from Namkwan(南關) to Bookkwan. Representative products of the Hamkyungdo were dried pollack(北魚) and ramie fabric(北布), and these products were delivered to Seoul where consumption was very high and sold through fish market and fabric market. However, once a new focal point of product distribution was established in the suburb of Seoul by the private merchants in responding against the monopolistic profit system of the public market from late 18th century, the marketing areas of the Hamkyungdo merchant were further enlarged. In addition, the distribution of such products as dried pollack and other were made possible in markets of Kyunggido(京畿道)and inlands of Kangwondo(江原道), Hwanghaedo, and Kyungsangdo(慶尙道) thanks to development of the new distribution channel. In the 19th century, use of the national sea roads became common that the products of Hamkyungdo were delivered in a large scale. The distribution system for a special products based on Jinseng were established between Kanggae(江界) of Pyungando, where Jinseng is a representative product, and Samsoo(三水)·Kapsan(甲山) of Hamkyungdo. The Bookkwan-Kaesi(北關開市) which was opened in Hoenyung(會寧) and Kyungwon(慶源) had also significant impact on the Hamkyungdo economy as the market had been using as an economic focal point by the regional people since the mid 18th century. While the public market got conventional as the tension between Chosun and Ching was relieved, private market and cattle market became more active, and the trade of Chosun cows with Ching horses(淸馬) was taking a great deal of weight. The Ching needed cows to use in agriculture as the Manchuria were developed whereas Chosun was counting on the Ching horses due to the failure of horse management policy by the government. The merchant class who were specialized in the product distribution was also formed as the commerce in Hamkyungdo was developed. Especially, the Booksang(北商) who led the development of Hamkyungdo commerce were fishery merchants in Wonsan(元山) and cloth merchants in Yookjin(六鎭). They were the private merchant group who did businesses in nation wide along with Kyungsang(京商) and Songsang(松商). The Booksang was a large group who had an organization system and transportation means which were necessary for the long-distance trade, and within the Booksang, there were capitalist, ship-owners, and peddlers and ship merchants who were directly responsible for moving products. Furthermore, in the major product collection centers of Hamkyungdo, there was development of the large scale wealthy merchants who had extensive capital and monopolized the distribution profits from some special products. These people were the town wholesale dealers who sought to have the monopolized profit keeping close ties with the government people, and especially Youngjerdogo(營底都賈) were very active in getting monopolized profit from trades of the specialty products which were presented to King. Besides, the city merchants who were trade specialists were also formed as the economic effectiveness of the Bookkwan-Kaesi increased. The growth of economic power resulted from the development of commerce in Hamkyungdo also brought about changes both in counter-famine policy and its financial management. Transfer of grain from other regions was the common method of countering famine in Hamkyungdo, and this was systemized by establishing the Mutual Relief Granary(交濟倉). However, from the late 18th century, the counter-famine function of the Mutual Relief Granary was deteriorated, and while it acted more as a financial center like other general exchange of grain, there were increasing cases of preparing relief financing through the activities of grain traders. This was based on the fact that the grain traders were very active on their daily business in Hamkyungdo. The types of commercial tax were also increased with the development of commerce. Wonsan Port of Deokwon (德源) was the one in Hamkyungdo which collected the most commercial tax. Wonsan had collected various types of commercial tax and used them as financial sources for not only the Deokwon but also local government since the mid 18th century. But, the central government office tried to snatch the taxes due to its merit. The practices of diverting financial resources of Hamkyungdo to the central government were increased in the 19th century. Although this kind of diversion was a national phenomenon caused by the financial crisis of Chosun, the fact that Hamkyungdo, who even had not been able to pay the field tax since the foundation of Chosun, became able to make up for the central government s finance showed that economic status of Hamkyungdo was certainly going up. Economic focal areas within Hamkyungdo were developed as well. Wonsan had been in spotlight as one of the strategic places for transporting goods and commodities through the searoad of East Sea since the early 18th century, and it was the biggest economic center in Hamkyungdo where lots of fishing and commercial boats were anchoring. In addition, Hamheung(咸興) where local government was located had reinforced its economic role as a collecting center of specialty products of Hamkyungdo since the mid 18th century. As Wonsan and Hamheung were developing as the economic centers, more population was gathered in these areas and these places started looking more like a city while social problems also started taking place. Frequent cases of fire in Hamheung and Wonsan since the late 18th century showed that these places had urban types of social problems with the population increase. Especially Hamheung had the most frequent fires since the mid 18th century. Among those families who were damaged by fires, there were many residents who were not registered in the census register, and they seemed to be the poor people who moved into the town with the urbanization of Hamheung. The Deokwon Administration once established the Water Supply Club(汲水契) because it was afraid that the commercial activities of Wonsan might be damaged by a fire. This kind of reaction indicated that the commercial economic center of Wonsan was in the process of restructuring into a real town. Although the commercial activities of Hamkyungdo during the late Chosun Dynasty were not leading the economic development of the nation as a whole, they were showing the same type of the product distribution which were spreading out nationwide. This means that the economic development of the late Chosun Dynasty was not made by the advancement of some special regions. Society in the late Chosun Dynasty was integrating equally through the nation even in terms of the economic perspectives.
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