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황성동고분출토 토용의 복식연구

Title
황성동고분출토 토용의 복식연구
Authors
구인숙
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
1987年5月 慶州市 隍城洞 542-1 所在의 廢古墳에서 土俑 11點과 기타 石製品이 出土되었다. 그중 人間土俑 6點은 당시의 얼굴모습과 服飾등의 寫實的으로 描寫되고 있어 韓國服飾史界에 큰 意味를 賦與해 주었다. 그리고 本 論文은 이 隍城洞出土 人物土俑 6點은 中心으로 隍城洞出土 土俑服飾의 樣式的 特性과 製作年代를 推定하는데 그 目的을 두었다. 이를 수행하기 위해 본 논문은 新羅統一前後에서 興德王服飾制度가 내려지기까지의 韓國, 中國, 西域諸國 및 日本에서 발견된 文獻과 實證資料를 통하여 新羅服飾의 外來要素의 受容, 變化, 新羅化過程을 硏究하여 다음과 같은 結論에 到達하였다. 新羅는 통일을 전후하여 번번한 遺唐使, 求法僧, 宿衛, 留學生 그리고 中國使臣등의 왕래에 의해 隨, 唐의 풍습과 衣冠을 받아들였다. 그리고 西域의 문물을 직접 혹은 중국을 통하여 간접적으로 받아들여 이 時期부터 新羅服飾에 唐風이 가미되고 西域的 要素가 가해지면서 新羅服飾은 多樣化로 展開되었다. 隍城洞出土土俑 男子服飾의 冠帽는 복頭로 두 系統으로 구분된다. 하나는 中國人이 주로 着用하는 복頭로 初唐代에는 平頭小樣形態이다. 다른 系統의 복頭는 高頭巾子形態이다. 이러한 실례는 이보다 시기가 앞선 慶州 斷石山神仙寺의 供養人物像, 順興於宿墓의 人物像에서도 그 實例를 볼 수 있다. 따라서 男子象Ⅱ에 보이는 복頭는 韓國固有의 것일 가능성이 짙다. 衣服은 袍로 窄袖細身形의 盤領袍이며 缺과袍와 縫腋袍가 있었으며 龍江洞土俑에서처럼 확실하지는 않으나 男子象Ⅰ의 거의 橫線이 난이라면 中國과 日本의 服飾에 準하여 볼 때 文人像에 속한다. 胴體部Ⅰ은 頭部가 파손되어 冠帽의 형태를 알 수 없으나 窄袖衣, 細袴위에 中間袖의 盤領袍를 입고 帶를 매고 靴를 신었다. 隍城洞出土土俑 女子服飾의 髮形 은 韓國固有의 北계이며 衣服은 窄袖短衣, 長裙을 입고 가슴에 帶를 맨 細身으로, 隨末, 唐初에 流行한 服飾樣式이다. 女子服飾에 보이는 하이위이스트의 細身의 실루엣은 주로 中國人들이 着用하여 新羅에 影響을 미친 服飾이다. 따라서 隍城洞出土土俑에 나타난 服飾樣式은 신라고유의 北계, 窄袖細身의 尿素위에 外來要素를 受容, 消化하여 나타난 窄袖, 細身의 服飾樣式이라고 생각된다. 한편, 龍江洞出土土俑의 樣式은 高계, 中間袖豊滿形의 盛唐服飾을 소박하게 表現하지만 隍城洞出土土俑의 表現樣式은 극히 單純하지만 세련된 新羅人의 氣質을 나타내고 있다. 表現樣式과 衣服樣式을 통하여 隍城洞出土 土俑의 製作年代를 推定해 보면 다음과 같다. 男子象Ⅰ의 복頭는 阿斯那忠墓(630年)出土의 侍男, 凌烟閣功臣圖(643年)의 功臣, 吐魯番 阿斯塔那 201號墓(674年)의 加彩侍者泥俑에서 보이는 것과 같은 初唐代에 유행한 平頭小樣이다. 의복은 盤領과 窄袖의 袍로 阿斯塔那 201號墓出土의 加彩侍者泥俑에서 볼 수 있는 細身의 형태를 하고 있다. 男子象Ⅱ는 弁形에 後脚이 附着된 소위 高頭巾子形의 張土貴墓(658年)의 男俑과 비슷한 복頭를 착용하고 있다. 胴體部Ⅰ은 무릎길이의 缺과袍를 입고 帶를 맨 모습으로 中國의 鄭仁泰墓(664年)의 牽駝俑 의 의복과 유사하다. 胴體部Ⅱ는 남자상인지 여자상인지 단언하기 어렵다. 女子像의 髮型은 新羅固有의 髮型인 北계로서 이러한 형태는 日本 高松塚(680年)에서 찾아 볼 수 있다. 衣服의 形態는 窄袖短衣, 長裙을 입고 가슴에 帶를 맨 細身의 실루엣에서 隨末에서 初唐에 이르는 樣式이다. 특히 李爽墓(668年), 李鳳墓(675年)의 人物圖의 衣服의 실루엣과 形式感情을 같이한다. 그러므로 以上의 男女服飾의 樣式的 特徵에 의한 隍城洞出土 土俑의 製作年代는 上限를 眞德王3年(649年)으로 보며 下限은 680年을 내려가지 않을 것으로 推定된다. ; In may 1987, 11 clay icons and other stone products were excavated in an abandoned ancient tomb which was located in 542-1 Hwangsung-Dong(隍城洞), Kyungju. 6clay figures of them were depicted realistically man’s features and postures, costume at that time that they gave a lot of significance to the fields of Korean Costume’s Academic Society. The main purpose of this thesis is to presume the time when it was made and its formal characteristics with the study of those 6 clay figures. In order to perform these objectives, it was researched through documentary record and demonstrative data which were discovered in Korea, China, the Western countries and Japan from pre and post of Unified Shilla period up to the time when King Heung Duck put a costume system into practice and researched how the influx of foreign element could have been adapted, changed and became Shilla’s costume. Through these studies, it was obtained a conclusion. Shilla accepted the customs and attires of Sui and T’ang by means of frequent in coming and out going Chinese envoy as well as Shilla’s envoy, monks, hostages, and students in China. From that period, by accepting things Western directly and indirectly by way of China, the diversity of Shilla’s costume began to develop by introducing the Western elements and T’ang’s style into Shilla’s costume. Crested hat of men’s clothing of the clay figures in Hwangsung-Dong is Bokdu(복頭)and this can be divided into 2 branches. One is mainly worn by Chinese and it is a Pyungdusoyang(平頭小樣)style of the early years of the T’ang period. The other is Kodugunja(高頭巾子)style. It can be found an examples at the offering figure statue at shin sun temple in Kyungju and that Sunheungosuk(順興於宿)tomb. Therefore, it is believed that the Kodugunja style which showed in men’s figure is a Korean one. The garment is a Po(袍) and it is a tight sleeve and silhouette’s Banryungpo(盤領袍)and there were Kyeolkyuapo(缺과袍)and Bongaekpo(縫腋袍). The horizontal line of hemline of men’s Ran(난)though it is not as accurate as the clay figures in Yonggang-Dong(龍江洞). As for torso part 1, it can not be known the style of the crested hat because the head part was damaged, but it were shoes, belt and common sleeve, Banryungpo on tight sleeve shirt and tight trouser. The hair style of the women’s clothing in Hwangsung-Dong clay figure is Bukkye(北계)peculiar to Korea. The costume was slim silhouette that people wore tight sleeve and short blouse and long skirt and belted on their bosom which dressed style was in vogue from late Sui dynasty to the early years of the T’ang period. The silhouette of slim silhouette’s high waist which can be seen in the women’s dresses in mainly worn by Chinese and affected Shilla’s costume. Therefore the dresses style of the clay figures in Hwangsung-Dong, it is considered it is a dresses style of tight sleeves and slim silhouette together with the adaptation and abolition of foreign elements on the basis of Shilla’s own elements like Bukkye hair style and tight sleeve and silhouette. The style of Yonggang-Dong’s clay figures expresses spherical Gei(高계)and common sleeve, loose silhouette of flourishing T’ang’s costumes planly whereas the style of Hwangsung-Dong’s clay costumes expresses refined spirit of the Shilla(Shillaism)though it is extremly simple. Through the mode of expression and the dress style, the time when it was made can be presumed as follows. Bokdu in men’s figure 1 is similar to the court man in Asanachung(阿斯那忠)tomb which was founded in 630, Nungyeongakkongsindo(凌烟閣功臣圖)in 643 and colored court man’s statue in Turfan. It is so called Pyungdusoyang which was in vogue in the early years of the T’ang period. The dress is Po(袍) and it is in the style of round neck, tight sleeve and slim silhouette, therefore it is similar to the style of colored court man’s statue in Turfan. Men’s figure 2 wore Bokdu which Hugak(後脚)is attached to Byunhyung(弁形), called Kodugunja style. This is similar to the style of the clay figures in Jangsagui(張士貴)tomb in 658. The torso part 1 is similar to the dress of Jeungintae(鄭仁泰)tomb in 664 in China that it belted and wore knee-length Kyeolkwuapo. It is difficult to assert that the torso 2 is a men’s figure or women’s figure. The hair style of women’s figure is Bukkye hair style which is peculiar to Shilla and this hair style is similar to that of Japanese Takamatsu(高松塚)tomb. Style of dresses is a slim silhouette which wore long skirt and tight sleeve-short blouse with belted on the bosom from the late years of the Sui dynasty to the early years of the T’ang period. Especially, it expresses the same formal emotion and a dressing silhouette of Isang(李爽)tomb(668)and Ibong(李鳳)tomb(675). As a result of researching the formal characteristics of both men’s and women’s clothing, the time when the clay figures in Hwangsung-Dong made can be presumed up to the Queen Jinduck(眞德)in 649 down to not later than 680.
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