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분청사기의 연구

분청사기의 연구
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
朝鮮時代前期의 陶磁器를 代表하는 粉靑沙器는 14世紀末 퇴락한 象嵌靑磁로부터 성장하고 15世紀 前半期에는 다양한 기법으로 발전하여 절정기를 이루며 15世紀 後半에는 서서히 衰退하여 가는 반면 鶴峯理 등지에서는 대단히 特色있는 地方樣式으로 발전한다. 그리하여 16世紀 前半期에는 印花技法은 거의 자취를 감추고 귀얄과 담금粉粧技法이 성행하다가 16世紀 後半에는 白磁에로 거의 흡수 소멸된다. 이처럼 粉靑沙器는 朝鮮前期文化의 한 측면을 대변하는 한국적인 素朴한 美의 具現體라고 할 수 있다. 이와 같은 粉靑沙器는 白土를 粉粧하는 技法에서 가장 特徵이 뚜렷하며 白土의 嵌入과 粉粧의 方法에 따라 象嵌·印花·剝地·陰刻·鐵畵·귀얄·담금(덤벙)粉粧 등의 다양한 技法으로 활달하게 구사되었다. 粉靑沙器의 發生·發展·衰退의 과정을 구명하는 일은 粉靑沙器의 양상을 보다 뚜렷히 하고자 함이며 나아가서는 象嵌靑磁로 부터의 변모 발전하는 과정과 白磁의 發生問題도 해결할 수 있다. 그렇게 함으로써 韓國陶磁史는 學問으로서의 理論的인 定立이 可能하게 된다. 이와 같은 學問的인 硏究에 일환으로 本稿에서는 전국 8개 市·郡의 58基 粉靑沙器窯址를 대상으로 하여 各 窯址의 實態,陶片의 種類, 陶片의 特徵을 考察함으로써 各 窯址의 제작시기의 추정이 可能하였으며 제작시기의 추정에는 編年資料와 文獻記錄에 의거하였다. 58基 窯址의 수집도편을 통해 볼 때 서울을 包含한 京畿道와 忠淸道가 같은 양상을 보이고 또한 全羅道와 慶尙道地方이 各各 特色을 보임으로 南韓에서는 粉靑沙器의 分布樣相의 特徵은 크게 3群으로 集約된다. 編年資料와 蒐集陶片의 발전양상과 特徵에 根據하여 粉靑沙器의 時期區分을 다음과 같이 3期로 하였고 다시 第1期와 第2期로 각각 細分하여 粉靑沙器의 양상을 보다 뚜렷이 하고자 하였다. 前期(發生期) (약 1360年-약 1420年) 第1期 胎動期 (약 1360年-약 1390年) 第2期 發生期 (약 1390年-약 1420年) 中期(發展期) (약 1420年-약1480年) 第1期 發展期 (약 1420年-약 1450年) 第2期 成熟期 (약 1450年-약 1480年) 後期(衰退期) (약 1480年-약1600年) 第1期 衰退期 (약 1480年-약 1550年) 第2期 消滅期 (약 1550年-약 1600年) ; Known as representing ceramic art in the early period of Choson, Punchong wares have been originated from degradation and simplification of the special technique for inlaid celadon of Koryo in the late part of the 14th century and reached the height of prosperity in various techniques and designs I the beginning of the 15th century. Punchong wares have been slow on the decline in late part of the 15th century, while still under development at Hakbongri and other areas in very regional styles with outstanding features. Thus, in the early 16th century, stamped designs were nearly disappeared, and designs painted with brushed white slip and dipped coating with white slip have been popular. In the late 16th century Punchong wares were absorbed into white porcelain and nearly disappeared. Accordingly, it is convinced that Punchong wares are realization of rustic beauty of Korea and represention of culture of early Choson. These wares show a distinct characteristic in glazing technique on grey and dark grey clay with white slip. The ornamentation was drawn on the surface with various techniques: inlay, stamped design filled with white slip, sgraffito decoration, incised design through the white slip, painted in underglazed iron on the white slip, painted with brushed white slip and dipped coating with white slip. My study on the growth, development, decline and disappearance of Punchong wares is for the classification of the aspects of the wares, and furthermore, will surely be of help for the close examination of the changes and development from the inlaid celadons and problems of the appearance f white porcelain. By doing so, it is convinced that the history of Korean ceramic art may possibly set up a theoretical ground as a science. As a link in the chain of this study, in this manuscript, through eight provinces and cities, actual conditions of 58 kiln sites of Punchong wares, kinds and characteristic of fragmentary pieces could be learned. And also the time of activity of each kiln site could be assumed, which was based on chronological data and records. Through the fragmentary pieces collected from the 58 kiln sites, the geographical distribution of Punchong wares in southern Korean can be mostly divided into three large categories as follows. 1. Kyunggi Province (including Seoul) and Choongchong Province 2. Cholla Province 3. Kyungsang Province Based on chronological data and developed patterns and characteristic of the collected fragments, I did try to establish chronology of Punchong wares into 3 periods as follows: EARLY PERIOD (ABOUT A.D. 1360-A.D. 1420) FIRST STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1360-A.D. 1390) SECOND STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1390-A.D. 1420) MIDDLE PERIOD (ABOUT A.D. 1420-A.D. 1480) FIRST STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1420-A.D. 1450) SECOND STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1450-A.D. 1480) LATE PERIOD (ABOUT A.D. 1480-A.D. 1600) FIRST STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1480-A.D. 1550) SECOND STAGE (ABOUT A.D. 1550-A.D. 1600)
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