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도시교통 발달과 도시성장 : 서울을 중심으로
- 도시교통 발달과 도시성장 : 서울을 중심으로
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- 대학원 사회생활학과
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- 都市交通 發達은 都市成長과 밀접한 關係가 있다. 그러므로 都市成長 類型은 都市交通의 歷史的 變遷에 따라서 함께 變化한다. 本 論文은 서울을 中心으로 交通發達이 都市의 地域擴張과 人口成長의 空間形態에 미친 영향을 조사하여, 交通發達과 都市成長의 關係를 구체적으로 밝히려는 데에 目的을 두었다. 交通發達과 圖示成長의 關係에 대한 硏究는 變化하는 都市의 未來에 일어날 수 있는 문제를 豫測할 수 있도록 할 뿐만 아니라 이를 解決하기 위한 基本的인 方向을 提示할 수 있다는 데에 그 意義가 있다.
交通發達과 都市成長의 關係를 밝히기 위하여 첫째, 이와 같은 문제를 취급한 주요 理論과 모델을 검토하였고, 둘째, 서울의 交通發達 過程을 조사하여 交通時代를 區分하였으며, 셋째, 交通時代別 都市成長의 特徵을 地域擴張과 人口成長의 空間形態를 中心으로 조사하였다. 마지막으로는 위에서 밝혀진 사실과 기존의 主要 理論이나 모델과 관련시켜 비교하여, 交通發達과 都市成長의 關係를 보다 구체적으로 반영할 수 있는 모델이 되도록 하는 데에 必要한 모델의 構成要素와 內容을 지적하였다.
硏究의 結果로 나타난 交通發達과 都市成長의 關係는 다음과 같다.
첫째, 交通技術의 向上에 따른 交通類型의 變化는 市街地 範圍를 擴張시키고, 人口 規模를 增大시킨다. 둘째, 都市成長에 따른 空間形態는 交通類型에 따라서 一定한 類型으로 變化된다. 즉 交通發達 過程에 다라서 都市地域의 形態는 圓形的 밀집형에서 放射型으로, 그리고 圓形的 散布型으로 順次的으로 移行되는 경향이 있고, 人口密度 表面의 形態는 圓錐形에서 放射狀 錐型으로, 그리고 多核型으로 變化되는 傾向이 있다. 셋째, 地形的 障碍를 극복할 수 있는 交通革新이 일어날 때까지 都市成長은 地形的 制約을 받는다. 따라서 現實에서의 都市空間 形態는 理想的인 圓形이나, 放射型(星型)으로 存在할 수 없다. 넷째, 기존 交通路가 지닌 特性은 계속 유지되는 傾向이 있으므로 都市成長은 기존 交通路에서 附加的으로 일어난다.
交通發達과 都市成長의 關係를 구체적으로 反映시킨 모델을 設定하려면 다음과 같은 점에 유의할 필요가 있다. 즉, 모델의 構成要素로서 地形, 地形的 制約을 극복하는 施設, 交通網, 行政的 境界, CBD 地域, 不連續 市街地, 縮尺등을 포함시켜, 都市成長에 미치는 地形的 制約 非對稱的인 都市成長 形態, 기존 交通路에서의 附加的인 都市成長 傾向, 交通發達에 따라 連續되는 不連續 市街地, CBD의 交通時代別 擴張範圍, 그리고 現實的인 都市規模 등에 모델에 反映시켜야 한다.
; Urban growth pattern varies according to the evolution of urban transportation, which itself changes and develops. This study examines the impacts of urban transportation on spatial of areal expansion and population growth in the case of Seoul, and attempts at finding a general theory that will explain the relationships urban transportation and urban growth bear with the changes in the spatial aspects of a city. This attempt acquires a wider significance beyond a local study because a clarification of the relationship between urban transportation and urban growth throws an illuminating light upon the future of a city as well as the direction one can take to resolve the potential problems accompanying urban growth.
I have taken the steps described below in order to clarity the relationship between urban transportation and urban growth:
(1) Examining major theories and theoretical models concerning the relationship between urban transportation ad urban growth.
(2) Examining the evolutional history of urban transportation in Seoul, and dividing into transportational periods.
(3) Examining the spatial aspects of urban areal expansion and population growth in each transportational period.
(4) Indicating the constituent elements of the theoretical model that will better explain the details of the relations between urban transportation and urban growth. Those theories and theoretical models known so far have posited the relationship between urban transportation and urban growth in following terms:
(1) Evolution of urban transportation plays an important part in causing urban areal expansion and population growth.
(2) The urban spatial shape appearing as a result of urban areal expansion takes first the form of circular-compact city, then that of star-shaped city, and then circular dispersed city in that order.
(3) The spatial shape of population density distribution appearing as a result of urban population growth takes first circular-cone-shape, then radial-cone-shape, and then multi-neuclei-shape in that order.
(4) Because the evolution of urban transportation occurs as an addition to the already existing transportation routes, it has the tendency to maintain their characteristics.
I have divided the evolutional history of urban transportation in Seoul into the following four transportational periods:
(1) Before 1899-a period of pedestrian transportation, when walking were the major transportation.
(2) The period between 1899 and 1950-a period of railroad mass transpiration, when streetcar, train, and narrow-gauge-railway train were the major mass transportation.
(3) The period between 1950 and 1974-a period of bus mass transportation, in the first half of which streetcar and bus were the major transportation, and in the second half of which bus was the chief transportation.
(4) From 1974 to date-a period of subway/automobile mass/individual transportation, when subway and bus coexist as mass transportation, and car as individual transportation.
As the results of an examination of the spatial aspects of urban areal expansion and population growth in each transportational period, I have found out these facts:
(1) In the period of pedestrian transportation, the spatial shape of built-up area took semi-circular-compact shape, and the spatial shape of population density semi-circular-cone shape.
(2) In the period of railroad mass transportation, the spatial shape of built-up area took asymmetric star-shape, and the spatial shape of population density asymmetrical radial-cone shape.
(3) In the period of bus mass transportation, the spatial shape of built-up area, and that of population density took the shape that had the characteristics of both the periods before and after this one.
(4) In the period of subway/automobile mass/individual transportation, the spatial shape of built-up area took semi-circular-dispersed shape, and the spatial shape of population density multi-neuclei-shape.
An examination of case of Seoul has enabled me to generalize of the relationship between urban transportation and urban growth in following terms:
(1) Improvements in techniques of transportation cause expansions in the size of the built-up area and population.
(2) The spatial shape of urban growth tends to change according to the changes in urban transportation.
(3) Urban growth occurs within the restrictions imposed upon by topographic barriers until they are overcome by innovations in urban transportation. Hence the appearance of those asymmetrical shapes where symmetrical shapes would have been predicted.
(4) Urban growth occurs as an addition to the already existing transportation routes, because their characteristics tend to be maintained.
In positing a theoretical model which better explains the details of the relations between urban transportation and urban growth, the following points should be considered. As the constituent elements of the model, topography, facilities overcoming topographic barriers, transportation network, administrative boundary, CBD(central business district), discrete built-up area, and scale should be included. Only the kind of model including such elements can explain topographic barriers influencing urban growth, asymmetrical shapes of urban growth, the tendency of urban growth as an addition to the already existing transportational routes, discrete built-up areas connected along the evolution of urban transportation, the spatial range of CBD of each transportational period, and the actual size of urban area.
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