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조선조 사화기의 권력구조에 관한 연구

조선조 사화기의 권력구조에 관한 연구
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대학원 정치외교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
This dissertation attempts to illuminate the power structure of the Literati Purge period from King Sungjong to the Kimyo Literati Purge under King Chungjong. By analyzing that period according to main features of power structure, this study ultimately seeks to shed light on the power structure of the Chosun Dynasty as a whole. Power structure can be defined as a distributional structure of political power in a given political society. The power structure of the period from King Sungjong to the Kimyo Literati Purge in characterized as follows. The power structure under King Sungjong’s rule can be divided into three stages: the Superintendency rule by King Sungjong’s grandmother behind the curtain, the early stage, and the late stage after King Sungjong’s takeover of power. In the Superintendency stage, policital power was shared by two groups of the House of Councillors(won-sang)who monopolized power under King Yejong and the Queen Chunghi(King Sejo’s wife)group. The Superintendency rule by Queen Chunghi and the House of Councillors had come to and end when King Sungjong made his father King Dukjong. At the early period of King Sungjong’s rule after his assumption of power, political structure shows a pattern of coalition in which power is shared by King Sungjong, the Office of the Inspector General(Sahunbu), and the Office of the Censor General(Saganwon)in order to restrain the Merit Subject Group who still exerted strong political power. At the late period of King Sungjong’s rule, the power of Samsa?the Office of Special Advisors(Hongmungwan)which remonstrated the king, the Office of the Inspector General, and the Office of Special Advisors?grew. In order to weaken the power of Samsa, the king cooperated with High Officials(dae-shin)and the Merit Subjects. The power structure under Yunsangun’s rule is divided in the Literati Purges. The Muo Literati Purge broke out in the context of power struggle between the king and High Officials on the hand and Samsa on the other hand. Its inception owed to a draft prepared for the official history in which a disciple of Kim Chongjik included “Lament for the Righteous Emperor.” To the Kim Chongjik group which inherited Chung Mongju’s principle of “Non-Loyatly to Two Kings”, political legitimacy, Yunsangun collided with the Merit Subjects who relied power on King Sejo and waged the purge against disciples of Kim Chongjik. The Muo Purge provided a momentum to the Kim Chongjik group of converting from a Neo-Confucian academic group to a political group. Since then, this group launched the Literati Political Movement(Sarim Political Movement)under the banner of Neo-Confucian Public Moralism. In conjunction with his personal proteges(kwon-shin), Yonsangun waged the Kapcha Literati Purge against the Merit Subject Group, the Kim Chongjik group, and Samsa to seek absolute monarchy. With the Kapcha Purage, the Merit Subject Group lost its power and converted to the Literati Group. As a result of this, the structure of the Literati Political Movement has expanded into a coalition of three groups of the Kim Chongjik, Samsam, and the Converted Literati Group. Yonsangun who sought to establish absolute monarchy was deposed by a coup centering aroud King Chungjong. The power structure of King Chungjong’s period is divided into two stages on the occasion of deaths of three merit subjects who related to bringing King Chungjong to the throne. The early Chungjong period shows a power struggle between conservation, reactionary merit subjects and dae-kan(Office of the Inspector General and the Office of the Censor General). Dae-kan launched a consistent Literati movement by arguing impeachment of the Merit Subjects who as Yonsangun’s subjects were rewarded for their merit in bringing Chungjong to the throne, and seeking pardon of those banished by Yonsangun. As the late period of King Chungjong, political power of the Merit Subjects became weakened with the deaths of three Merit Subjects. The subsequent power vacuum was filled by the Literati Group and King Chungjong who restored a king’s authority. With the rise of Cho Kwangjo, a disciple of the Kim Chongjik group, the Literati faction set out an active Literati Political Movement such as establishment of Examination for the learned and virtuous(Hyunrang-kwa), and deletion of the Merit Subjects from the merit roster who were rewarded for their merit in Chungjong’s enthronement. At this stage, the emphasis of the Literati Political Movement has shifted to sharing of political power which was a basic principle of Moral Training from criticizing political power which was a legacy of Neo-Confucian Public Moralism. In this context, the Kimyo Literati Purge was an attempt to curb the enlarged Literati Group by the State Council in the Kimyo Literati Group signifies the expansion of the Literati movement from lower-level bureaucrats to upper-level bureaucrats. Consequently, the Kimyo Literati Purge had led to incorporating various levels of subject groups by merging the Merit Subject Group into the Literati Group. If we abstract common features found in each power structure, we are able to analyze a whole power structure. One common characteristic found in each power structure is the rise of Moral Subjects and the pattern of divide and rule by kings. Subjects at the early Yi dynasty are divided into Royal Subjects(wang-shin)whose power bases are kings an Moral Subjects(sa-shin)whose power base is a moral doctrine(do)of Neo-Confucianism. Royal subjects in turn can be divided into Merit Subjects(king-shin), king’s personal proteges(kwon-shin), and in-law subject(chuk-shin). Among these three groups, Merit Subjects were the most powerful group as to challenging kings’ sovereignty. However, by the Kapcha Literati Purge, the Merit Subjects had lost their connection with kings as a power base and collapsed of had been incorporated into the Literati Group. Instead, Moral Subjects got more powerful. Another common characteristic found in power structure is kings’ principle of divide and rule. In order to strengthen king’s rights, kings adopted the means of dividing power of subjects to curb the power of stronger subjects by weaker subjects. With common features found in each power structure, we can get a better insight of the power structure in the Literati Purge period as well as the connection between the early and the late Chosun Dynasty. Among three variables of power structure of kings, Royal Subjects, and Moral Subjects, the power structure of the Literati Purge period(or the second phase of the early Chosun Dynasty)shows a coalition between kings and Royal Subjects excluding Moral Subjects. Relating the Purge period with its previous and later periods, a notable change in power structure took place between the first and the second phase of the early Chosun Dynasty. In the Founding period(or the first phased of the early chosun), two important variables of power structure were kings and Royal Subjects. In contrast, at the second phased of the early Chosun, a new variable of Moral Subjects was added to the existing power structure. Throughout the Purge period, a pursuit of absolute monarchy had resulted in the consolidation of Moral Subjects as well as the decay of Royal Subjects by the downfall or the conversion of them into Moral Subjects. In addition, the exclusion of the middle class by Moral Subjects in the Purge period presaged a future tendency of conservataism and division within the ruling elite. This, combined with king’s principle of divide and rule, led to a new triad of power structure composed of kings, Moral subjects, and Moral subjects?i.e., subjects divided within themselves?at the Factionalism period(or the first phase of the late Chosun Dynasty). The power structure of the Literati Purge period and the Chosun Dynasty can be explained by an equilibrium theory in the sense that political power was divided between kings and factious subjects. Kings sought to strengthen kings’ rights by dividing subjects. Subjects sought to weaken kings’ rights by developing logics. Thus, the two parts arrived a point of equilibrium. ; 本 硏究는 朝鮮朝 權力構造를 認識하기 위한 作業의 一環으로 士禍期의 權力構造를 分析하는데 그 目的을 둔다. 士禍期는 朝鮮朝를 創業한 建國期와 朝鮮朝 權力構造의 要諦를 나타내는 朋黨期 사이의 過渡期에 해당하므로, 士禍期 權力構造에 대한 硏究는 朝鮮朝 權力構造를 認識하는 단초를 提供해 줄 것이다. 士禍期 權力構造를 分析하기 위하여 本稿는 다음과 같이 構成되어 있다. 1章에서는 士禍期 權力構造의 分析을 위한 理論的 接近을 摸索하였고, 2章에서는 士禍期 權力構造의 原形이라 볼 수 있는 建國期의 權力構造를 살펴보았다. 그리고 3章에서부터 5章까지는 士禍期 權力構造 硏究의 豫備作業으로 士禍期를 權力構造의 構成要素의 차이와 構成要素間의 葛藤의 차이에 따란 細分하여 살펴보았고, 6章에서는 그 結果를 綜合하여 다시 士禍期 權力構造를 全體的으로 認識할 수 있는 틀을 再構成하여 朝鮮朝 權力構造 認識을 위한 試論을 提起하였으며, 7章 結論에서는 本論의 結果를 簡略하게 再整理하였다. 그러면 각 章의 硏究 內容을 살펴보기로 한다. 建國期의 權力構造는 王과 功臣間의 零合게임적 樣相을 보여주고 있다. 이는 成宗朝 垂簾聽政期에 功臣中心의 政局運營에서도 그대로 反映된다. 한편 이 時期의 垂簾聽政勢力은 功臣과 함께 權力周邊을 構成하고 있으면서도 功臣의 權力獨占을 牽制하고 있어 零合게임적 權力構造의 再編成 要因이 되고, 또한 다음 時期인 成宗朝 親政期가 士禍期 權力構造의 政治制度的·政治勢力的 基盤이 되는 轉機가 된다. 成宗 親政初期의 權力構造는 前時期 零合게임의 敗北者인 王이 公論의 所在인 臺諫 과 연합하여 功臣을 牽制하는 王·臺諫 對 功臣의 葛藤構造이다. 成宗 親政後期의 權力構造는 言論三司 構成으로 言官權이 成長하자 王이 이를 牽制하려는 王·大臣 對 三司의 葛藤構造를 보인다. 燕山君朝의 權力構造는 士禍를 中心으로 區分된다. 戊午士禍의 起禍者는 王과 勳臣이며, 被禍者는 金宗直門人이다. 三司를 배경으로 政治制度的 基盤을 닦은 金宗直門人은 王權의 正當性 是非로 權力構造의 構成要素가 된다. 金宗直門人은 戊午士禍를 계기로 朱子學 學習集團에서 政治集團으로 변모하며, 朱子學的 公道論을 價値理念으로 하는 政治改革運動으로서 士林政治運動을 전개한다. 甲子士禍의 起禍者는 絶對王權을 추구하려는 燕山君과 權臣이며, 被禍者는 勳舊派·三司·金宗直門人이다. 이를 계기로 勳舊派는 몰락 또는 士林派로 自定하며, 士林政治運動의 組織構造는 甲子士禍 被禍者 3者 聯合救助로 擴大된다. 中宗朝 權力構造는 靖口功臣 中心의 政局運營期·士林派의 政治勢力化期·己卯士禍로 나누어진다. 靖口功臣 中心의 政局運營期의 權力構造는 保守反動的인 功臣과 臺諫간의 葛藤으로 나타난다. 臺諫은 功臣 彈劾·被禍人의 伸寃 등을 통해 持續的인 士林政治運動을 벌인다. 士林派의 政治勢力化期에 權力構造는 王과 士林派의 聯合構造를 보인다. 士林勢力은 金宗直系 門人 趙光祖의 대두와 더불어 昭陵復位·鄭夢周의 文廟從祀運動·賢良科設置·靖口功臣 削勳 등 활발한 士林政治運動을 展開한다. 士林勢力의 이러한 勢力擴大에 대한 牽制策이 己卯士禍이다. 己卯士禍의 起禍者는 王과 南袞 등 權臣이며, 被禍者는 己卯士林派이다. 己卯士林派에 宰相權의 參與는 甲子士禍에서 勳舊派의 士林派로의 自定과 함께 分離되어 있던 臣의 層을 하나로 結束시켜 주었다. 己卯士禍로 士林政治運動은 좌절되었으나, 그 價値理念은 王과 臣이 共同으로 政局을 運營하자는 共治論으로 나타난다. 成宗朝에서부터 中宗朝 己卯士禍까지의 各 權力構造에서 共通的으로 나타나는 特徵을 보자. 첫째, 각 士禍의 起禍者와 被禍者들을 분석해 보면, 王·臣間의 葛藤이라는 繼起性이 나타난다. 士禍는 個人感情으로 인한 權力다툼이 아니라, 權力構造의 構成要素인 政治勢力間 의 葛藤이며 王臣間의 矛盾이 露呈되어 표출된 一連의 政治過程이다. 또한 被禍者에 勳舊派와 宰相權의 參與는 王權에 대한 臣權의 成長을 反映한다. 둘째, 士臣의 成長과 王의 分割支配현상이다. 朝鮮前期에 나타나는 臣의 類型에는 權力基盤을 王에 둔 王臣, 즉 功臣·戚臣·權臣과 朱子學의 道에 둔 士臣이 있다. 士臣은 鄭夢周의 節義觀을 中心으로 權力의 正當性을 중시하며, 王權을 制約하려 한다. 士臣은 士林政治運動을 통해 계속 成長하며, 王權에 비해 制度化의 水準도 높으므로 政治에서 士臣에 차지하는 비중은 점점 높아진다. 그리고 王은 王權을 약화시키는 士臣의 成長을 傍觀하지 않고 臣에 대한 分割支配의 方法으로 적극적으로 대처해 나간다. 끝으로 특징을 통해 權力構造의 變數를 再構成함으로써 본고의 硏究範疇였던 士禍期 權力構造 뿐만 아니라 그 前後期와의 聯關性을 통해 朝鮮朝 權力構造를 인식해보자. 朝鮮前期 2期인 士禍期의 權力構造는 王·王臣·士臣 三變數로 構成되어 있으며, 王과 王臣이 聯合하여 士臣을 탄압하는 性格을 보여주고 있다. 이를 士禍期의 前後時期와 연관시켜 보자. 朝鮮前期 1期인 建國期에 보여주었던 王과 王臣이라는 二變數 中心의 權力構造는 朱子學的 公道論이라는 理念을 기반으로 하여 王·王臣에게 제약을 가하려는 새 變數 士臣이 추가됨에 따라, 朝鮮前期 1期와 2期사이에는 權力構造의 變動이 惹起되었다. 士禍期의 絶對王權 追求는 建國期의 주요 變數였던 王臣의 士臣으로의 自定 또는 몰락을 가져옴으로써, 王臣이라는 變數를 약화시킴과 동시에 士臣의 강화를 가져왔다. 한편 士臣들이 士禍期에 보여준 中人들에 대한 排他的인 屬性은 支配階級의 保守化및 內部의 分化可能性을 內包하고 있다. 이와 王의 分割支配的 性格이 結合하여 朝鮮後期 1期인 朋黨期에 와서는 王·士臣·士臣으로 構成되는 權力構造의 변화를 가져다 주었다. 朝鮮朝 士禍期의 權力構造는 王과 分割된 臣僚間의 均衡論으로 認識할 수 있다. 王은 臣僚의 分割을 要求하며 王權强化策을 摸索하는 반면, 臣僚는 王權의 彈力性에 制約을 가하는 論理를 發展시켜 나가면서 서로의 均衡点을 찾는다. 또한 朋黨期 權力構造도 그 變數의 構成으로 보아 이 認識으로 說明할 수 있을 것으로 보인다. 朋黨期가 朝鮮朝 權力構造의 要諦를 나타낸다는 점으로 미루어 볼 때, 본고에서는 王과 分割된 臣僚間의 均衡論을 朝鮮朝 權力構造 認識을 위한 試論으로 提起해 보고자 한다.
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