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즉흥을 사용한 무용실험그룹들의 특성연구

Title
즉흥을 사용한 무용실험그룹들의 특성연구
Other Titles
Study on the Characteristics of the Experimental Dance Groups Using Improvisation
Authors
장지원
Issue Date
2005
Department/Major
대학원 체육학부
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
조은미
Abstract
This thesis is aimed to analyze various activities, choreographical methods, and characteristics of such dance groups as are regarded to have played a pivotal role in and brought about important experimental changes of dances in the United States by using the choreographical method of improvisation, with emphasis on the importance of the groups. To do that, the present author researched into such groups according to their generation time, examined 'improvisation' which can help incorporate the groups into one, and analyzed the characteristics of the experimental groups in the terms of their choreographical methods, political and social viewpoints. Stimulative issues such as freedom and equality in addition to racialism, communism, and social conceptions were spread abroad in the 19 century when new ideas threatened the traditions of the Western cultures in every field of art. At that time, black slaves were striving to find their identity and women to claim their voting right. The 20th century was faced with rapid changes in the social and cultural environment including the outbreaks the 1st and 2nd World Wars and the emergence of feminism and new aesthetics, all of which had influence on dances and instigated such modern dances with fresh concepts as grow out of ballet which has been the most widely enjoyed in history. Modern dances regard the traditions of ballet as binding and formal restrictions and negate them and, instead, incessantly search after and make an experiment on other spheres that the existing ideas and creation methods of dances cannot cover. The emergence of modern dances led to the recognition of dances as an art and academic value. However, experimental trends were gradually added to the initial modern dances which, like ballet, began to be fixed into a mode in the 1950's. Other modes of dances than the existing modern dances were introduced in serious by the cooperation of Merce Cunningham and his friend and colleague John Cage. In addition, the 1950's met other avant-garde dancers such as Ann Halprin, James Waring, and Aileen Passloffm, all of whom had influence on post-modern dancers in the 1960's. In particular, Ann Halprin introduced the use of 'improvisation' in a dance workshop held in San Francisco where 'improvisation' was distributed to other dancers, musicians, and poets and where diverse artists could exchange their skills and ideas. A radical and experimental spirit was spread the most rapidly in the 1960's when Merce Cunningham offered dance creation classes which were taught by Robert Dunn. Students attending the classes hosted a concert at Judson Church in 1962, which gave birth to the Judson Dance Theater. The Judson Dance Theater was a pioneer of post-modern groups and first introduced many shocking events, happenings, pop arts, and other minimalism movements. Later, part of the theater independently organized the Grand Union which has other characteristics. The Grand Union is also focused on personal creativeness and inclined to happening, which makes much of voluntary improvisation. In a word, in the 1960's - 70's, many dances were staged via happening, performance, multimedia art event, and improvisation, and experimentality was also applied to other genres such as play, in which avant-garde representative troupes include the Living Theater and the Open Theater. The attention of people was drawn to such dance groups as the Workgroup of Daniel Nagrin and the New York Chamber Dance Group of Richard Bull in the 1960's, and to the Sounds in Motion of Dianne McIntyre and the Contact Improvisation of Steve Paxton in the 1970's. The said groups are characterized by the dance method of improvisation, which activates the performance of dances, and by their strong opposition to and request for reconsideration on the existing traditions. The analysis of the characteristics of the existing traditions results in the extensive application of ordinary actions to choreography and the incorporation of voluntaries, spontaneity, and individuality into dance performances. In the meantime, a focus is not put on a finished product of the improvisation work but on its process, and each of the dance performance has its own flexibility and changeability, extensively reflecting the Oriental spirit. Dances applied with improvisation represent democratic thoughts, become aware of racial and sexual identity, and value human body. They are also related to other fields of art or music, especially, jazz while maintaining the importance of improvisation and the heightened interest in the training of human bodies which is essential to dances. Unlike in the past, audience personally participates in the production of dance performances. In this thesis, the author could freshly find the characteristics and dance language of the said groups, varied approaches to dance motions, and a possibility of integrating as many media as possible and developing a unique method of performance. Furthermore, the present author could reconfirm that improvisation has been an important factor for choreographical methods and dance training methods and that improvisation is an excellent skill to represent the inner instincts of human beings in a natural manner and develop a rigid bodily training into a flexible one. The value of improvisation cannot be too much emphasized, because many of the characteristics of the aforesaid improvisation groups are applicable to rapidly changing modern dance circles.;본 논문의 목적은 즉흥이라는 안무의 방법론을 사용해 미국무용의 실험적인 측면에 있어서 지대한 역할을 담당했고 중요한 변화를 가속화시켰다고 사료되는 무용그룹들의 전반적인 활동사항과 안무방식, 특성들을 분석해 그 중요성을 강조하는 것이다. 이를 위해 발생시기별로 그룹들을 조명하면서 특히 이들을 하나로 연대시킬 수 있는 즉흥에 관해 규명하고 실험그룹들의 특성을 안무방식의 측면과 정치, 사회적인 측면, 예술적 측면에서 분석해 즉흥성향을 논의하였다. 1960년대는 급진적이고 실험적인 정신이 가장 비약적으로 전개된 시기로, 커닝험은 무용창작수업을 개설했고 이를 로버트 던으로 하여금 지도하게 했다. 이 수업에 참여한 학생들의 콘서트가 바로 1962년 저드슨 교회에서 열린 저드슨 무용단의 출발이었다. 저드슨 무용단은 포스트 모던그룹의 선두주자로서 가장 먼저 이벤트, 해프닝, 팝 아트, 미니멀리즘의 여러 운동을 포함하는 충격적인 면을 선보였으며, 이들 중 일부는 후에 그랜드 유니온을 결성해 또 다른 성격을 지향하게 된다. 결국 60-70년대는 많은 무용이 해프닝, 퍼포먼스, 복합매체 예술 이벤트, 즉흥의 형식을 취하였고, 이밖에 타 장르인 연극분야에 있어서도 이 시기는 무용과 마찬가지로 실험성이 촉구된 기간으로 극단인 리빙 시어터와 오픈 시어터가 즉흥을 바탕으로 아방가르드적인 성격을 보여주었다. 무용계에서는 60년대 다니엘 나그린의 워크그룹과 리차드 불의 뉴욕 챔버 댄스 그룹, 70년대의 그랜드 유니온과 다이엔 멕킨타이어의 사운즈 인 모션, 스티브 팩스톤의 접촉즉흥이 즉흥을 사용해 새롭게 관객에게 접근했다. 본 논문을 통하여 그룹들의 특성을 바탕으로 무용언어를 재발견할 수 있는 기회와 동작에 있어서의 다양한 접근법, 여러 매체의 활용들이 최대한 통합되어 독창적 방식을 전개할 수 있는 새로운 가능성을 발견할 수 있었다. 또한 오늘날까지 안무방식, 무용교육법에 중요요소로 자리잡고 있는 즉흥을 연구함으로써, 즉흥이 자연스럽게 인간의 내적충동을 끄집어내 굳어진 신체훈련체계를 깨는 훌륭한 표현기법임을 강조하고 재확인해 볼 수 있었다. 이러한 일련의 논의를 토대로 조명한 즉흥그룹들의 특성은 급변하는 변대의 무용예술에 적용할 경우 수용가능한 측면들을 다수 포함하고 있으므로, 그 가치를 강조해도 지나침이 없을 것이다.
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