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면복에 관한 연구 : 우리나라 면복을 중심으로
- 면복에 관한 연구 : 우리나라 면복을 중심으로
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- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- Particular crowns and robes known as Myun Bok were originated in ancient China. They were used in ceremonies as traditional ornaments and official dresses by the Han people throughout history ; however, grand imperial crowns and robes that pertain to a monarch were made known only after the period of the later Han dynasty （A.D.36~221）. And it was still quite some time after the establishment of the T’ang dynasty （618~906）that neighboring “barbarian” states became clearly aware of definitions of terms of crowns and robes as such.
It is also evident that adjacent “barbarian” rulers adopted similar ornaments and vestments in the days of the Five dynasty （907~960）. Needless to say, the case of the korean courts is not an exception to this.
As the Chinese influence gradually spread over peripheral regions, Chinese emperors occupying the dragon throne claimed sovereignty over these countries.
China imposed tributes upon submissive states and in return conferred crowns and robes on those rulers who acknowledged her sovereignty. Thus the historical practice of conferment of crowns and robes by the Heavenly throne was introduced into our history.
The first known Korean ruler to be conferred upon with a Chinese crown and a robe in general Kim Chun-Chu of the Silla dynasty that was a ally of the T’ang dynasty. And this conferment was generally known as the first clear expression of the Korean people of “subjugation to and respect for the center of universe.”
Ⅰ. A History of Korean Myun Bok
（1） Conferment of crowns and robes during the period of the Silla and Koryo dynasties
As stated before, it is a generally accepted historical fact that Kim Chun-Chu of the Silla dynasty introduced the first conferred T’ang crowns and robes to the Korean court, yet it is still undetermined. To our amazement it is recorded that a much later ruler of Korea, namely the fourth King Kwang-jong of the Koryo dynasty, wore a crown and a robe made in imitation of those used in the period of the later Chu dynasty in China. And there is no record of conferment by the Chinese court at the time.
It became evident only in the times of the 10th King Jeung-jong of the Koryo dynasty that the Korean royal family was granted the conferment of Chinese crowns and robes. Therefore the Koryo court received crowns and robes from ruling dynasties of China, Khitan, Liao, Sung and Chin（960~1279）. Moreover, this fact was confirmed again during the reigns of the 17th King In-jong and his successor Uwi-jong.
After Genghis, grandson Kublai established the Yuan dynasty in 1260, Korea became her most faithful tributary and Mongolian costumes and dresses were introduced to Korean ruling families, but Koryo Kings’ Myun Bok remained unchanged. The reason for the continued wearing of Chinese crowns and robes by Koryo Kings can be derived from the fact the Mongolian emperors themselves preferred traditional Chinese Myun Bok to their own ornaments and vertments.
When the Ming dynasty replaced the decaying Mongolian Yuan, Korean King of the newly established Yi dynasty humbly applied for a conferment of Myun Bok and resumed the costume practice.
（2） Conferment in the period of the Yi dynasty
King of the early Yi dynasty such as Tai-jong and Se-jong were distastefully humiliating in their supplication for the conferment. There were many emissaries specifically sent to the Ming Court for the conferment, and missions to express profound gratitude of the Korean Kings for the generous conferment were also dispateched.
It is very important to note that Myun Bok bestowed upon Korean Kings were not these pertaining to Chinese emperors, but only these worn by royal princes of Chinese sovereigns. Yet these Myun Bok designed for princes were considered to be proper for rulers of subjugated states. Certainly that was the case with Korean Kings who thought Chinese Myun Bok represented the authority vested in the Heavenly Throne. At the same time Myung Bok were generally taken as a symbol of delegation of the authority of the Chinese emperor, and they were frequently used for the prupose of diplomacy as such.
On the other hand, it must be added that though Myun Bok had more luxurious dignified look, they represented Korea’s submission to China, while rather simple dresses and ornaments of the times of the Three Kingdoms had a strong flavor of national pride and character.
Myun Bok were in use in the Korean court up to the time of the last King of the Yi dynasty, but the King. Ko-jong were for a while a real set of Myun Bok belonging to the Chinese Dragon Throne.
Ⅱ. Composition of Myun Bok
Myun is Myun Lyu Kwant that means a crown while Bok is for Kon Bok that is a robe.
The terms “crowns” and “robes”, moreover connote certain degrees of authority, dignity and honor in the wearer. Crowns vary in number of “pendilia” and “regalia”. And robes had different numbers of emblems to distinguish degrees in the wearer.
Origins of each class and their changes in design together with corresponding historical background were elaborated. For example, imperial crowns made for emperors had 24 pendilia all together, 12 in front of and another 12 behind the band. Each pendilia was studded with 12 precious bijou stones. Crown for princes had 18 pendilia, instead, each of which had nine bijou stones studded, and these were conferred upon Korean Kings.
Kon Bok, robes, worn by emperors had 12 emblems while these of princes only nine. Emblems symbolizing the Sun, the Moon and the Stars were permitted to only emperors robes. Robe for Chinese princes as well as for Korean Kings had only nine emlems with the emission of the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars.
Lastly, it should be said that though this study may essential aspects relevant to general studies of the Korean cultural heritage were also taken into account and these accounts will no doubt throw a light upon a study on our own national characteristics.
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