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근거이론에 의한 유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감 형성과정 분석

Title
근거이론에 의한 유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감 형성과정 분석
Other Titles
An Analysis on the process of constructing multicultural education efficacy in early childhood teachers according to grounded theory approach
Authors
박미경
Issue Date
2012
Department/Major
대학원 유아교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
엄정애
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to arrange the foundation in understanding about early childhood teachers' multicultural education efficacy, by exploring how the multicultural education efficacy is revealed and by analyzing the process of constructing early childhood teachers' multicultural education efficacy through in-depth interviews with early childhood teachers according to the grounded theory. Based on the above objective, the research problem in this study is "how is early childhood teachers' multicultural education efficacy formed?" Participants in this study are 15 early childhood teachers who are now in charge of young children from multicultural families or who have career of having been in charge of them within the recent 1-2 years. An analysis on the process of constructing multicultural education efficacy was made according to the grounded theory approach suggested by Strauss and Corbin(1998/2003), which is proper for explaining a change of an individual's behavior in the process of reconstructing a case and for analyzing structure through interaction. Data collection was made through interview by stage-based division. The collected data was categorized and organized after passing through open coding, axial coding, selective coding and conditional matrix work, and then was progressed with the process of integrating theory inductively. The results of this study are as follows: First, as a result of analyzing category related to early childhood teachers' multicultural education efficacy, it elicited totally 95 concepts, 35 sub-categories, and 15 categories. The analyzed categories could be divided as follows according to paradigm model. The casual condition was elicited ‘recognition on necessity of multicultural education’ and ‘feeling about being in charge of young children from multicultural families.’ The contextual condition was indicated to be ‘young children's characteristic and reaction’ and ‘characteristic and attitude in parents from multicultural families.’ The phenomenon was analyzed 'execution of multicultural education.’ The intervening condition was analyzed ‘social atmosphere,’ ‘climate of teaching profession,’ and ‘individual characteristic.’ The action/interaction strategies were indicated ‘examining reflectively,’ ‘fostering multicultural capability,’ ‘searching for successful method,’ and ‘having relationship with parents form multicultural families.’ The consequences were elicited ‘staying,’ ‘deeply understanding multicultural education,’ and ‘acquiring self-confidence.’ Second, the process of constructing early childhood teachers' multicultural education efficacy was indicated to be stages such as ‘recognition of necessity for execution,’ ‘difficulty for execution,’ ‘improvement in teaching ability,’ ‘reinforcement in professionalism,’ and ‘construction of multicultural education efficacy.’ Examining specifically, the stage in ‘recognition of necessity for execution’ is the one that teachers recognize necessity of multicultural education and are stimulated a will to practice. The stage in ‘difficulty for execution’ is the one that early childhood teachers practice with recognizing necessity of multicultural education, but come to face several difficulties with executing. In the stage of ‘improvement in teaching ability’ and the stage of ‘reinforcement in professionalism,’ the teachers come to have successful experience with executing multicultural education by using diverse strategies individually and socially as well as in the educational field. Finally, the stage in ‘construction of multicultural education efficacy’ was indicated differently depending on teachers' multicultural education efficacy level. The image was ever shown that teachers stay without a change even if having ever deeply understood multicultural education and acquired self-confidence. This stage was ever varied and repeated its period depending on situation. Accordingly, the process of constructing multicultural education efficacy wasn't fixed, but proceeded with forming with repeating the circular process on and on. Third, the core category in the selective coding was indicated to be ‘constructing efficacy with executing multicultural education together with young children and parents.’ It integrated and elaborated other category through story line centering on this core category, thereby having been able to know which relationship the early childhood teachers' experience, which carried out multicultural education together with parents and young children, has with the construction of multicultural education efficacy, and how it was formed. Fourth, as a result of utilizing conditional matrix for integrating the results of this study, each of categories was indicated to be different, respectively, in the dimension of individual, kindergarten, and society. The process that early childhood teachers proceed with constructing efficacy while executing multicultural education together with parents and young children was elicited amid the context of individual dimension and the whole society as well as dimension of kindergarten. The following are the significances of this study, which was examined on the basis of the above findings. This study is differentiated from the existing research on multicultural education efficacy in a sense of having elicited the theory model of early childhood teachers' process of constructing efficacy, and of having explored the process of constructing multicultural education efficacy and the influential conditions in the educational field. Also, there is significance in a sense that the offer of diverse cases such as difficulty, overcoming method, and its result, which are shown in early childhood teachers' executing multicultural education, led to having provided an opportunity of indirect experience to teachers, who are executing multicultural education now, in addition to the understanding about the early childhood education field that is performed multicultural education. Furthermore, the categories, which were elicited in this study, will be able to be utilized as basic data for developing scale of multicultural education efficacy.;본 연구는 근거이론에 따라 유아교사들과의 심층 면담을 통해 다문화교육 효능감이 어떻게 드러나는 지 탐색하고, 다문화교육 효능감 형성과정을 분석하여 유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감에 대한 이해의 기초를 마련하는데 목적이 있다. 이상의 목적에 근거한 본 연구의 연구문제는 “유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감은 어떻게 형성되는가?”이다. 본 연구의 참여자는 다문화가정 유아를 현재 담임하고 있거나 최근 1-2년 이내에 담임한 경력이 있는 유아교사 15명이다. 다문화교육 효능감 형성 과정에 관한 분석은 사례를 재구성하는 과정에서 개인의 행동변화를 설명해 주고 상호작용을 통한 구조를 분석하는데 적합한 Strauss와 Corbin(1998/2003)의 근거이론(grounded theory) 접근에 따라 이루어졌다. 자료 수집은 단계별 면담을 통해 이루어졌다. 수집된 자료는 개방 코딩, 축 코딩, 선택 코딩, 상황모형 작업을 거쳐 범주화, 조직화하여 귀납적으로 이론을 통합하는 과정으로 진행되었다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감과 관련한 범주를 분석한 결과, 총 95개의 개념, 35개의 하위 범주, 15개의 범주가 도출되었다. 분석된 범주를 패러다임 모형에 따라 다음과 같이 분석하였다. 인과적 조건은 ‘다문화교육 필요성에 대한 인식’, ‘다문화가정 유아를 담임하는 심정’이 도출되었고, 맥락적 조건은 ‘유아의 특성과 반응’, ‘다문화가정 부모의 특성과 태도’로 나타났다. 현상으로는 ‘다문화교육 실행하기’, 중재적 조건으로는 ‘사회적 분위기’, ‘교직풍토’, ‘개인 특성’이 분석되었다. 작용/상호작용 전략으로는 ‘반성적 성찰하기’, ‘다문화역량 키우기’, ‘성공적인 방식 찾기’, ‘다문화가정 부모와 관계 맺기’가 나타났고, 결과로는 ‘머무르기’, ‘다문화교육 깊게 이해하기’, ‘자신감 획득하기’가 도출되었다. 둘째, 유아교사의 다문화교육 효능감 형성과정은 ‘실행의 필요성 인식’, ‘실행의 어려움’, ‘교수능력 향상’, ‘전문성 강화’, ‘다문화교육 효능감 형성’단계로 나타났다. 구체적으로 살펴보면 먼저 ‘실행의 필요성 인식’ 단계는 교사들이 다문화교육에 대한 필요성을 인식하고 실천의지를 자극받는 단계이다. ‘실행의 어려움’ 단계는 유아교사들이 다문화교육의 필요성을 인식하고 실천하지만, 실행하면서 여러 가지 어려움에 처하게 되는 단계이다. ‘교수능력 향상’ 단계와 ‘전문성 강화’ 단계에서 교사들은 교육현장에서 뿐만 아니라 개인적·사회적으로 다양한 전략을 사용하여 다문화교육을 실행하면서 성공적인 경험을 하게 된다. 마지막으로 ‘다문화교육 효능감 형성’ 단계는 교사의 다문화교육 효능감 수준에 따라 다르게 나타났는데, 다문화교육을 깊이 이해하고 자신감을 획득하기도 했지만 변화 없이 머무르는 모습을 보이기도 했다. 이러한 단계는 상황에 따라 그 기간이 다르고 반복되기도 하였다. 이와 같이 다문화교육 효능감 형성과정은 고정된 것이 아니라 계속적으로 순환적인 과정이 반복되며 형성되는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 선택 코딩에서 나타난 핵심 범주는 ‘유아, 부모와 함께 다문화교육을 실행하면서 효능감 형성하기’로 나타났으며, 이 핵심 범주를 중심으로 이야기 윤곽의 전개를 통해 다른 범주를 통합시키고 정교화 함으로써 유아교사가 부모, 유아와 함께 다문화교육을 실행한 경험이 다문화교육 효능감 형성과 어떤 관계가 있으며, 어떻게 형성되어 나가는지를 알 수 있었다. 넷째, 본 연구의 결과들을 통합하기 위해 상황모형을 활용한 결과, 각 범주들은 개인·유치원·사회 차원에서 각각 다르게 나타났다. 유아교사들이 유아, 부모와 함께 다문화교육을 실행하면서 효능감을 형성해 가는 과정은 유치원 차원만이 아니라 개인적 차원, 사회 전체의 맥락 속에서 도출되었다. 본 연구 결과를 통하여 유아교사가 다문화교육을 실행하고 효능감을 형성해 가는 과정에서 유아와 부모가 교육의 수요자로서 역할을 하는 것이 아니라 주체자로서 역할을 한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 교사들이 성공적인 다문화교육을 실행하면서 효능감을 형성해 가기 위해서는 특히 다문화가정 부모를 교육의 장으로 이끌어 낼 수 있는 다양한 노력이 필요하다. 그리고 다문화교육 효능감이 높은 교사들이 성공적으로 다문화교육을 실행해 나가는 것도 알 수 있었다. 그러므로 교사들의 다문화교육 효능감을 높이기 위한 다양한 교사교육 프로그램들이 개발되어져야 할 것이다. 더불어 본 연구에서 도출된 범주들은 다문화교육 효능감 척도 개발의 기초자료로 활용할 수 있을 것이다.
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