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구한말 경찰복 연구

Title
구한말 경찰복 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Police Uniforms during the Late Joseon Dynasty
Authors
김정민
Issue Date
2012
Department/Major
대학원 의류학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
홍나영
Abstract
This study provides an enlightening perspective into the police uniforms that were introduced during the Joseon Era and the times of the Korean Empire. A modern police system and westernized police uniforms were introduced in response to the Gabo Reform during the Joseon Era and also to Korea's response to embrace the influences of Western civilizations. There were numerous royal orders by the king, which had binding power, that decreed the colors, forms, and materials of the police uniforms from that period of time. Using gazettes, official government journals, during the mentioned periods of time as a primary source, this study provides a diverse perspective analysis into the police uniforms and their changes implemented by the king in response to the passage of time and Korea’s embracement to western influences. This study focuses on the time period from 1894 to 1910 when the Korean police system was constantly evolving. The systems that changed over that time period include: the Gyeongmuchung (警務廳), the Gyeongbu (警部), the re-established Gyeongmucheong (警務廳), and the Gyeongshichung (警視廳). From 1895 to 1907, there were a total of 16 royal orders by the king on the uniforms of the police system. These royal orders affected the uniforms of policemen from the highest ranked chiefs to the lowest ranking officers. An officer's rank could be clearly distinguished by the attributes of the officer's uniform. The attributes differentiated in ornaments are called Jang (章) which corresponds to an Officer’s rank. These ornaments included features like the number of lines on uniforms, flowers called Ehwa (李花), and many others that were incorporated into the hats, collars, shoulders, sleeves, and pants of the uniform. There were two types of police uniforms: Yebok (禮服) which was used for formal events like national events and Sangbok (常服) which was used for everyday duty and service. The Yebok was more elaborately ornamented like having gold cords incorporated into the uniform different from the Sangbok which had features like black cords which were more subtle in appearance. A police uniforms consisted of such items as a hat, an upper garment, pants, a belt called Shikdae (飾帶), a sword called Do (刀), a sword ornament called Doseo (刀緖), a belt that holds the sword called Dodae (刀帶), a revolver called Yookhyulpoe (六穴砲), gloves, shoes, and a lantern. The Shikdae was worn around the waist with the Yebok for special occasions that required a formal uniform. The Shikdae was made of red woven yarn and had tassels that were red as well but later the tassels were made in different colors to correspond to an officer’s rank. There were two kinds of jackets that could be worn with the uniform: one was a common jacket and the other was a cape. There was also a separate uniform that was worn in the summer seasons. This study also focuses on the changes to the police uniform in accordance to the passage of time. As time passed, the ranks and jurisdiction of the police system changed. So it was inevitable for the police uniforms to reflect those changes. There were changes of forms and colors in parts of the uniform. In the early days, the policemen would wear helmet-type hats and later they were replaced by common-type hats. The earlier version of the upper garment had buttons along the central line in the front. They used metal buttons and they also used button knots in the shape of a flower called Mugoonghwa (無窮花). In 1905, double-breasted upper garments were introduced as part of the Yebok. There were constant changes to the number of lines and the shapes of the Jang that corresponded to an officer’s rank. During the periods that this study focuses on, which the police uniforms initiated the mentioned changes above, the uniforms of public officers also adopted westernized uniforms. Even though the police uniforms were amongst the first to change, it is difficult to find artifacts and photos of police uniform from these periods unlike other types of uniforms like its military counterpart. Unfortunately, the police uniforms from these times have evaded the attention from academic scholars and the academic field. This study is significant because it examines the police uniforms in many different aspects and it offers some foundation for researches on other uniforms and westernized clothes during the same periods of time mentioned in this study.;이 연구는 구한말에 우리 경찰이 수용한 서구식 경찰복을 고찰한 것이다. 지금까지의 연구를 보면 일제강점기의 ‘순사(巡査)’로 대표되는 과거 경찰에 대한 이미지 때문인지는 몰라도 구한말의 경찰마저도 크게 주목받지 못하였다. 따라서 이 연구에서는 경찰복의 품목들과 시대의 흐름에 따른 경찰 복제의 변화를 종합적으로 살펴봄으로써 그 시기의 경찰복을 재조명해보고자 하였다. 우리나라의 근대적 경찰제도는 갑오개혁(甲午改革) 이후 도입되었다. 1894년에 설립된 경무청(警務廳)을 시작으로 1900년의 경부(警部), 1902년에 복설된 경무청이 근대적 경찰제도에 따른 우리의 경찰체제였다. 이후 일제에 경찰권을 침탈당하면서 경찰은 경시청(警視廳) 체제로 운영되었다. 이러한 근대적 경찰제도하에서 우리 경찰은 경찰복을 착용하였는데, 그것은 서구식 제복의 형태였다. 또 이는 복제(服制)로 제정, 칙령(勅令)으로 반포되었다. 칙령에서는 경찰복을 예복(禮服)과 상복(常服)으로 크게 나누었고, 경찰 최고 계급부터 하위 계급에 이르는 관리(官吏)들이 착용하는 복장의 품목과 그 형태를 규정하였다. 또한, 각종 국가행사 때 착용하던 예복의 경우에는 착용시기도 칙령에 기록하여 두었다. 경찰복의 소재로는 흑색에 가까울 정도로 짙은 감색의 융이 주로 사용되었으며, 모자[帽], 웃옷과 바지, 식대(飾帶), 도(刀), 도서(刀緖), 도대(刀帶), 육혈포(六穴砲), 장갑[手套], 신발[靴]로 구성되어 있었다. 여기에 우복(雨覆), 일복(日覆), 내의(內衣) 등도 착용하였다. 칙령에서 정한 상복(常服)은 봄 ․ 가을 ․ 겨울용이었기 때문에 하복(夏服)을 따로 두었으며, 외투(外套)는 갑종(甲種)과 을종(乙種)으로 나누어 상황에 맞게 착용하였다. 이 하복(夏服)과 외투(外套)도 넓은 의미에서 상복(常服)에 포함시킬 수 있다. 경찰체제의 변동에 따라 경찰 복제(服制)도 끊임없이 바뀌었다. 1895년부터 1907년까지 경찰 예복은 총 6차례, 상복에 관련된 사항은 총 9차례의 제정과 개정을 거치면서 체계화되어 갔다. 그동안 경찰복의 형태와 규격, 그리고 장(章)이 꾸준히 변경되었다. 장(章)은 제복의 중요한 기능 중 하나인 계급의 표시를 위한 것으로 광직(廣織), 편직(匾織), 사복직(蛇腹織), 원교직(圓交織), 양고직(兩股織) 등을 이용한 선 장식과 다양한 형태의 장식으로 이루어져 있었으며, 이를 통해 착용자의 계급을 구분하기도 하였다. 이러한 경찰복은 기록으로 미루어 볼 때 상당히 고가(高價)였으며, 경찰 조직에서 구입해 관리들에게 공급하였던 것으로 추정된다. 따라서 많은 예산이 여기에 사용되었으며, 경찰 조직 내에 복제(服制) 관련 담당을 두기도 하였다. 상점이나 입찰을 통해 사들이거나, 수입(輸入)해 온 경찰복은 각종 운송수단을 이용해 지방에까지 공급되었다. 또 경찰은 이를 급여품(給與品)과 대여품(貸與品)으로 구분하여 관리하는 등 체계적인 시스템이 구축되어 있었다.
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