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청소년의 여가활동유형에 따른 사회적 관계와 주관적 행복감의 관계

Title
청소년의 여가활동유형에 따른 사회적 관계와 주관적 행복감의 관계
Other Titles
The relationship between social network and subjective happiness according to the type of youth people's leisure activities
Authors
박민정
Issue Date
2012
Department/Major
대학원 소비자학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
문숙재
Abstract
Subjective happiness index of Korean youth people remained in the lowest consecutively for 3 years as 65.98 among OECD 23 countries(Bang Jung Hwan foundation-research institute, Yonsei university, 2011). In addition, according to the research report on actual condition of human rights of Korean children and teenagers of National Youth Policy Institute, it showed that 1 out of 4 children and teenagers felt unhappy, the reasons were academic burden(36.3%), worries about the future(18.6%) and non-fellowship home(11%), they said that the causes of stress for recent 1 year were academic burden(87.1%), worries about the future(58.4%), appearance and physical condition(45.4%), nine out of 10 students in normal high school, 1 out of 2 students in elementary school said to get the stress form academic burden. It has been reported that the happiness index of students who was residing in Seoul showed 3.83 out of 5 points, as the grade was higher, the happiness index decreased(Seoul metropolitan office of education, 2012). The severity can be emphasized because it can escalate into social adjustment or crisis situation of youth people rather than this low subjective happiness appeared only "less happy" as physical state. Therefore, I recognize the problem of youth people's happiness as whole social problems rather than the level of individual life's satisfaction and the access to several policy ways was attempted in the country. However, this policy becomes the confusion of operators, teachers and students in school since this policy is lack of understanding the meaning of free time given to young people and an alternative to the efficient use of time in policy preparation, and radical change of direction rather than gradual improvement suitable for each school-grade situation in policy implementation. In addition, increased free time can be seen as other problems such as expensive private lesson for entrance examination or weekend boarding school's prevalence due to focusing on only the increase of free time without considering the quality on leisure life of youth people. This study started from the problem to activate any leisure activities, promoting leisure activities for happy life of young people. In particular, ultimately it was to seek for the ways to improve the level of adolescents' happiness and academic·political challenges in related field with social network. I decided to limit the range of youth people that are the subjects for the study as "more than 4the grade of elementary school to less than a high school students", the sampling of the group was done based on pre-percentage assignment in each gender, grade. The research method was primary internet research and secondary questionnaire collecting way, 1.046(final response rate 83.4%) were used in the final analysis. The analysis of data collected used SPSS WIN 18.0 program. In analytical method, the general characteristics of the subjects were analyzed through Frequency Analysis, and leisure activities hours, social network and subjective happiness characteristics of the subjects were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics. In addition, reliability analysis and 'Factor Analysis' were carried out to verify reliability and validity of the scale such as social network, leisure activities and subjective happiness of young people that were key factor in this study. I choose to raise Euclid distance as a similarity measure, 'K-means Clustering' was applied carrying forward non-hierarchical analysis to obtain more sophisticated result by reviewing coagulation factor and Dendrogram from the results. Moreover Regression analysis was conducted to investigate factors to affect the level of subjective happiness. Cross-Analysis was conducted to identify general characteristics and distribution of social network according to each group by leisure activities types, X2 verification was conducted to check the meaningful characteristics of the difference. And one-way ANOVA was implemented to analyze the difference of leisure time spent in each leisure activities type, social network scores and the level of subjective happiness, Duncan-test was done as post-test. The findings are summarized as follows: First, the result to check the difference in the general characteristics of youth people showed a significant difference statistically in gender, grade, the higher level of education of father, father's job, mother's job. Particularly, the results to check by departmentalizing the activities made during leisure time showed the difference between groups in online leisure activities time, outdoor activities time, TV watching time. Especially, in case of the type of over immersion on cyber leisure and the type of indoor and outdoor activities variety, noticeable difference can be seen, in case of the type of over immersion on cyber leisure, the highest values were online leisure activities time and TV watching time, while the type of indoor and outdoor activities variety showed relatively high values in other activities except for TV watching time. Thus you can the difference in terms of the amount of leisure time (how much is consumed?) and quality (how to spend?) by the type of leisure activities. Second, the analysis on the scores gap of social network showed a significant difference by the type in relationship with school teacher, private educational institute teacher, mother, father except for relationship with friends. Cluster analysis of social network can be done as the type of conflict in relationship with mother/ the type of passive relationship/the type of expanding in network/ the type of absence relationship with friends-mother/ the type of potential conflict to analyze social network according to the type of leisure activities by space of youth people, the results to check leisure activities type by space of youth people and the distribution of network showed statistically significant(p<0.001). The concrete analysis, the type of over immersion on cyber leisure showed the most in case of the type of conflict in relation with mother(40.5%), the type of potential conflict(31.4%), the type of passive relationship(32.4%). Meanwhile, the type of expanding in network was the most in case of belonging to the type of indoor and outdoor activities variety(32.0%), the type absence in friends-mother showed the type of passive relationship(31.2%) was more. Thus depending on the type of leisure activities, there was a notable difference in the social relationship of youth people. Third, the analysis on the difference of the level of subjective happiness according to the type of leisure activities by space of youth people showed a statistically significant difference(p<0.001). As a result of matching hypothesis that the difference will be in the level subjective happiness of youth people depending on the type of leisure activities, in-depth study on the type of leisure activities of youth people will be needed to increase the level of subjective happiness of youth people. In addition, various leisure activities to promote the level of happiness of youth people are required getting out political limits to remain in the increase of free time based on such studies. Fourth, according to the type of leisure activities, there was the difference of the influence on the level of subjective happiness in the social relationship of adolescents, I could confirm that there was the difference in social relations affected by the level of subjective happiness by the type of leisure based on these results, require more in-depth qualitative search about the increase-decrease of the level of subjective happiness for any reason specifically. Fifth, I investigated the relative influence of the general characteristics, social relations and the type of leisure activities on the level of subjective happiness. As expected, the findings showed as the relationship with social network was better, the level of subjective happiness was higher, in particular, a big influence on the relationship with school teachers was analyzed. The results of this analysis was to confirm that factors called the type of leisure of youth people had explanatory ability in social network and the level of subjective happiness beyond confirming most previous studies that affected social network and the level of subjective happiness of youth people. In this study, I examined the type of leisure of current adolescents for concrete policy measures. First of all, weekday-weekend leisure time increased due to the focus on the increase of leisure time of young people, but I found that they were still passive in terms of leisure activities, remaining on the type of fragmentary leisure. In this study, especially analysis of the difference in the level of subjective happiness according to the type of leisure activities of adolescents was confirmed that the type of active participation in leisure and the type of indoor and outdoor activities variety were the highest in the level of subjective happiness, In the general discussion that existing leisure life affected subjective happiness of youth people one step further, it was significant for the study in that the difference in the level of subjective happiness was confirmed according to the type of leisure activities. In addition, it was meaningful in that leisure activities has an effect on subjective happiness increasing as a specific result of leisure activities' positive impact on youth people. And it was meaningful in that leisure of adolescents by social statistical factors (father-mother's job, educational level), the difference was remarkable. It was important in that the type of leisure which had an influence on promoting adolescents' happiness was confirmed and the need for the government's policy approach to adolescents' leisure life was identified not to occur leisure alienation by hierarchical leisure. Various discussions on approach to the program's development for improvement on the quality of leisure activities of youth activities focusing on various policy on leisure activities to continue active and positive leisure life as well as increasing the amount of leisure time were tried as a way of leisure policy to promote subjective happiness of young people in this study based on these results.;결과로 나온 응집계수와 덴드로그램을 검토하여 더욱 정교화된 결과를 얻기 위해 비계층적 분석으로 이월하여 ’K-군집 분석(K-means Clustering)'을 적용하였다. 또한 주관적 행복수준에 영향을 미치는 변인들의 영향력을 살펴보기 위해 회귀분석(Regression analysis)을 실시하였다. 여가활동유형별 각 군집에 따른 일반적 특성과 사회관계 분포를 파악하기 위해 교차분석(Cross-Analysis)를 실시하고, 그 차이의 유의미성을 확인하기 위해 X2검증을 실시하였다. 그리고 각 여가활동유형별 사용한 여가시간, 사회관계 점수, 그리고 주관적 행복도의 차이를 분석하기 위해 일원변량분석(one-way ANOVA)를 실시하였으며, 사후 검증으로 Duncan-test를 실시하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같이 요약된다. 첫째, 여가활동유형에 따른 청소년의 일반적 특성의 차이를 알아본 결과 성별, 학년, 아버지 최종학력, 아버지 직업, 어머니 직업에서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 여가시간동안 이루어진 활동을 세분화하여 살펴본 결과, 온라인 여가활동시간, 야외활동시간, TV시청시간에서 집단 간의 차이가 나타났다. 특히 사이버여가과몰입형과 실내외활동다양형의 경우 두드러진 차이를 볼 수 있는데, 사이버 여가과몰입형의 경우 온라인여가활동시간과 TV시청시간에서 가장 높은 값을 보이고 있었으며, 반면 실내외활동다양형의 경우 TV시청시간을 제외한 나머지 여가활동에서 비교적 높은 값을 보여주고 있음을 알 수 있다. 따라서 여가활동 유형별로 여가시간의 양(얼마나 소비하는가?)과 질(어떻게 소비하는가?)적인 측면에서의 차이가 나타나는 것을 확인할 수 있다. 둘째, 청소년의 공간별 여가활동 유형에 따른 사회관계 점수 차이를 분석한 결과, 친구와의 관계를 제외한 학교 선생님, 학원 선생님, 어머니, 아버지와의 관계에서 유형별로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 청소년의 공간별 여가활동유형에 따른 사회관계 유형을 분석하기 위해 사회적 관계를 군집분석한 결과 어머니관계갈등형/소극적관계형/관계확장형/친구-어머니관계부재형/갈등잠재형으로 분석가능하였으며, 청소년의 공간별 여가활동 유형과 사회관계 유형 분포를 살펴본 결과 통계적으로 유의미한 것으로 나타났다(p<0.001). 구체적인 분석결과 어머니관계갈등형(40.5%), 갈등잠재형(31.4%), 소극적관계형(32.4%)의 경우 사이버여가과몰입이 가장 많은 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 관계확장형은 실내외활동다양형(32.0%)의 유형에 속하는 경우가 가장 많았으며, 친구-어머니관계부재형은 소극적여가참여형(31.2%)이 많은 것으로 나타났다. 이로써 여가활동 유형에 따라서 청소년의 사회적 관계에 확연한 차이가 있음을 알 수 있다. 셋째, 청소년의 공간별 여가활동 유형에 따른 주관적 행복수준의 차이를 분석한 결과, 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다(p<0.001). 이는 여가활동 유형에 따라서 청소년의 주관적 행복수준에 차이를 나타낼 것이라는 연구가설에 일치하는 결과로써 청소년의 주관적 행복수준을 높이기 위해서는 청소년의 여가활동유형에 보다 심층적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 보인다. 또한 그러한 연구를 바탕으로 자유시간의 증대에서 머물러 있는 정책적 한계에서 벗어나서 청소년들의 행복수준을 증진시킬 수 있는 다양한 여가활동유형을 제안하는 것이 필요하다. 넷째, 여가활동유형에 따라 청소년의 사회적 관계도가 주관적 행복수준에 미치는 영향력의 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 여가유형별로 주관적 행복수준에 영향을 받는 사회적 관계에 차이를 보인다는 것은 확인 할 수 있었으나, 구체적으로 어떤 이유에서 주관적 행복수준을 증진-증감 시키는지에 관해서는 보다 심층적인 정성조사가 요구되는 바이다. 다섯째, 청소년의 일반적 특성, 사회적 관계, 여가활동유형이 주관적 행복수준에 미치는 상대적 영향력을 알아보고자 하였다. 연구결과 사회적 관계의 경우 예상대로 사회적 관계와의 관계가 좋을수록 청소년의 주관적 행복수준은 높게 나타났으며, 특히 학교 선생님과의 관계가 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 분석되었다. 이러한 분석결과는 사회적 관계에 청소년의 주관적 행복수준에 영향을 미친다는 대부분의 선행연구를 확인하는 것을 넘어서 사회적 관계와 주관적 행복수준에 있어서 청소년의 여가유형이라는 변수가 설명력을 가진다는 것을 확인하는 연구결과라 할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 구체적인 정책방안을 위해 현재 청소년들의 여가행태를 살펴보았다. 우선, 청소년들의 여가시간 증가에 초점을 둔 정책들로 인해 평일-주말 여가시간은 증가하였으나, 여가활동의 측면에서는 여전히 수동적이며, 단편적인 여가유형에 머물러 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 특히 본 연구에서 청소년의 여가활동 유형에 따른 주관적 행복수준의 차이를 분석한 결과 적극적 여가참여형과 실내외활동다양형의 주관적 행복수준이 가장 높은 것을 확인하였으며, 이는 기존에 여가생활이 청소년들의 주관적 행복감에 영향을 준다는 일반적 논의에서 한걸음 나아가 여가활동 유형에 따른 주관적 행복 수준의 차이를 확인했다는 점에서 연구의 의의가 있다. 또한 여가활동이 청소년에게 주는 긍정적 영향력에 대한 구체적인 결과로써 청소년의 주관적 행복증진에 영향을 준다는 것을 확인하였다는 점에서도 의의가 있다. 또한 사회통계학적 변인(부-모의 직업, 학력)에 따라서 청소년의 여가유형을 살펴본 결과 그 차이가 두드러지게 나타났다. 이는 청소년의 행복감 증진에 여가유형이 영향을 준다는 것이 확인되었다는 점에서 여가계층화에 다른 여가소외현상이 발생하지 않도록 청소년의 여가생활에 대한 정부의 정책적 접근의 필요성이 확인되었다는 점에서도 의의가 있다. 이러한 연구결과를 바탕으로 본 연구에서는 청소년의 주관적 행복감을 증진시키기 위한 여가정책 방안으로써 여가시간의 양을 늘리는 것은 물론능동적이고 적극적인 여가생활을 지속할 수 있도록 여가활동의 다양성에 정책의 핵심을 두고 청소년의 여가활동의 질 개선을 위한 프로그램을 개발에 대한 접근방법에 대한 다양한 논의를 시도하였다.
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