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韓國 近代 '東洋畵' 敎育 硏究

Title
韓國 近代 '東洋畵' 敎育 硏究
Other Titles
A Study of Education on Modern Oriental Paintings in Korea
Authors
김소연
Issue Date
2012
Department/Major
대학원 미술사학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
홍선표
Abstract
본 연구는 미술교육이라는 근대적 개념 및 제도의 도입이 한국 근대 전통화단에 미친 영향과 그 교육의 실상을 살펴보고자 의도되었다. 이는 근대화단을 교육이라는 키워드를 통해 보는 새로운 시도이면서, 현대화단의 주요작가로 성장하는 ‘동양화 1·2세대’의 修業期에 대한 관심이기도 하다. 지금까지 근대기에 대한 미술사학계의 관심은 새로 유입된 洋畵와 같은 혁신적인 것, 이전시대와는 구별되는 특징들에 집중되어 왔다. 그러나 실제 역사적 근대의 풍경은 전근대의 연장선상에 있는 많은 요소들을 보여준다. 이와 같은 근대 인식 자체의 맹점은 미술사에서도 그대로 적용되어, 근대기의 非근대적인 분야에 대한 가치가 폄하되어온 가운데, 전통화단의 객관적인 평가는 큰 진전을 보지 못해왔다. 근대기의 전통 화단은 오랜 시간 지속된 ‘書畵一致’의 개념이 무너지고, 書와 畵가 별도의 장르로 구별되는 과정을 경험했다. 더욱이 한국 근대의 특수한 시대적 상황 아래 전통회화는 ‘朝鮮畵’가 아닌 ‘東洋畵’라는 개념으로 재편되었고, 동양화는 일본화와의 공존을 위해 채택된 타율적 개념이라는 한계를 태생적으로 지니고 있었다. 동양화는 朝鮮美術展覽會의 공모부분으로 규정됨으로써 官展의 아카데미즘을 중심으로 그 성향이 구체화되었다. 새로운 전통의 창조와 계승이라는 시대적 과제에 당면한 근대화단에서, 동양화는 彩色-水墨이라는 서로 대립적인 개념의 총체로 이해되었다. 채색과 수묵이라는 회화 기법상의 문제는 실제 근대기 동양화단을 양분하는 첨예한 기준으로 적용되었으며, 해방 이후 왜색청산이라는 시국적 상황과 맞물려 채색을 一掃하려는 운동으로 이어지기도 했다. 본 연구는 또한 한국 근대의 ‘중앙화단’이며 典範으로서의 식민지 본국 일본과의 관계에 주목하고 있다. 일본화단은 에도(江戶) 시대 이래 화숙교육을 통해 유파의 화법을 전수해왔는데, 커리큘럼의 명시와 실행을 특징으로 하는 미술학교의 설립 이후 화숙과 학교의 끊임없는 힘겨루기는 일본 근대 화단의 일면을 구성하게 되었다. 서구 모델의 영향을 받아 일본화단에서 형성된 미술교육의 시스템은, 일본인 화가에 의해 在朝鮮 거류민 대상의 연구기관으로 처음 국내에 소개되었다. 이러한 자극은 국내 화단의 교육기관 설립을 이끌었고, 일제강점기를 통해 더욱 다양한 형태로 전개된다. 조선미전의 창설은 전통화단에 큰 변화를 초래하여, 官展의 개최와 함께 동양화는 공식적 창작 단계에 접어들게 되었다. 이와 관련하여 조선미전 개최 1년 뒤, 공모전 설립의 영향으로 처음 동양화를 교수한 연구기관과 그 설립 목적을 살펴보게 된다. 이와 함께 기존의 ‘漫遊’를 통한 작가의 외부경험과 작풍의 변화가, 근대기에는 ‘留學’이라는 특정 목적을 지닌 체계적인 방법으로 대체되었다는 특징이 있다. 만유에서 유학으로의 패러다임 전환은 유학의 대상국이 ‘內地’였던 일본으로 옮겨짐에 따라, 직접적인 사제관계를 통해 근대 전통화단의 재구성에 큰 역할을 담당하게 된다. 따라서 당시 유학생이 선호한 스승 및 교습기관의 성향에 주목하여, 동양화의 진전을 위해 그들이 취사선택한 것들은 무엇이었는지 규명하고, 귀국 후 이들의 수업경험이 후학에게 미친 영향에 대해서도 다루어 본다. 본문의 마지막 장을 통해, 근대 채색·수묵계열을 대표하는 金殷鎬, 李象範 두 관변작가가 운영한 畵塾에 대해 집중적으로 논의하고 있다. 국내 동양화 교육은 1930년대 중반 이후 화숙이라는 전근대적 교육 기관이 주도하게 된다. 화숙교육은 전통화단의 낙후성이 드러난 예로 인식되어, ‘상위개념의 학교교육’이 불가능한 식민지적 상황에서 이루어진 ‘대체개념으로서의 화숙’으로 저평가 되어왔다. 그렇지만 이 점에 대해서는 학교 교육과 같은 종합교육을 상대적으로 우월한 개념으로 보는 현대의 시선이 투영된 것은 아닌가 생각된다. 이와 같은 근대 후반기 화단을 이끌어 온 화숙에 대한 평가절하는 당시의 화단과 화풍에 대한 폄하로 이어지고 있을 것이다. 본 연구는 근대기 전통회화가 동양화로 재편되는 과정에서 화가들을 육성한 전문교육의 역할과 그 영향관계를 살펴보면서, 일본과 한국, 중앙화단과 지방화단, 프로와 아마추어, 학교와 화숙 등 미술연구방법의 다양한 층위를 구분하여 가능한 한 실상에 가깝게 파악하고자 한다. 다양성 자체가 또 하나의 특징을 이루고 있는 근대기 동양화단의 현상을 포착하는 이러한 시도는, 교육기관의 성격과 커리큘럼 등의 철저한 분석을 기반으로 가능하게 된 것이다. 특히 정확한 실상을 파악하기 위하여 당시 출간된 간행물, 사료, 관련 작품들에 대한 엄밀한 고증과 새로운 발굴을 통해, 기존 연구의 한정된 자료의 인용으로 인한 한계점을 극복하고, 지금까지 규정되어 온 교육기관의 성격에 대한 재조명을 시도해 보았다.;This study is intended to investigate how the modern concept of fine art education had an impact on the country’s traditional painters, along with the reality of such education. This is a new attempt to view modern painters through the prism of education with a particular interest in the first generation of those engaging in Oriental paintings. Interest by researchers in paintings made in the modern period focused on the likes of innovative concepts like the newly introduced Western paintings or features distinguished from those made in preceding periods. However, the landscape of the modern period display many factors associated with the early modern period. Such blind spots concerning the view of the modern period were copied in art-history and as a result, things that did not go well with the prevalent period were undervalued during the modern period. It resulted in little progress in objective evaluation of traditional painters. During the modern period, traditional painters who regarded the long­standing tradition of calligraphy as part of painting was put to an end when the two came to be distinguished as different genres. Moreover, due to the country’s special political situation during the modern period, the newly adopted paintings in the country during the period had limitations as a concept forcefully adopted for coexistence with Japanese paintings. They were called Oriental paintings instead of Korean paintings. The term Oriental paintings were officially adopted and they became part of the annual Joseon Art Exhibition. In the ensuing period, its definition became more concrete led by the academism of government­sponsored exhibitions. During the modern period, Oriental paintings were understood as a combination of the two opposing concepts, more specifically, the use of colors and the use of only ink by local circles of painters, who were faced with the task of creating new traditions while maintaining old traditions. Painting techniques such as the use of colors and the use of only ink served as an acute criterion dividing Oriental painters into two during the modern period. In the period right after the country’s liberation from colonial rule, the use of colors were put to an end in parallel with the ideological campaign to get rid of Japan­influenced cultural factors. Where did such a thing found in Oriental painters stem from? This study intends to interpret such a status of circles of Oriental painters during the modern period, when landscapes were painted in ink, whereas people, flowers, and birds were painted in colors on a criterion based on their education. Since oriental paintings spread in this country through education, it is believed that the criteria concerning Oriental paintings, which were presented through the annual exhibition, became more elaborate in terms of category and directionality. It is thought that the divide between the two different methods became more prominent through Hwasuk (in Korean and gajuku in Japanese meaning a small­scale private painting school), which was adopted during the later part of the modern period. This study examines to see how a modern concept of fine art education had an impact on traditional painters and what role it played in the adoption of Oriental paintings based on demonstrative research of that time. This study gives a clue to the answer about the country’s relationship with Japan, which served as the center for local painters during the modern period, Since the Edo Period, with the aim of launching Japanese paintings, Japan opened a new page in art history through gajuku education and established a school for higher education in arts such as the Tokyo Art School. However, complicated relationship involving factions of people and political and regional issues evolved. In the ensuing period, the persistent rivalry between gajuku and formal schools became an aspect of the circle of Japanese painters in the modern period. The Japanese system of art education was introduced to Korea through Japanese painters. It led to the establishment of research institutions by local traditional painters partaking in and developing various forms during the colonial period. The launch of the annual Joseon Art Exhibition caused a drastic change in the local circle of painters during the modern period. Following the first government­sponsored art exhibition, which was the only official exhibition held during the modern period, Oriental painters engaged in creating works under governmental sponsorship. In this connection, this study shed light on fine art educational institutions established a year after the first annual exhibition under its influence for students aiming to be selected in the annual exhibition, paying close attention to institutions that taught Oriental paintings, as well as Western paintings. This study also noted the fact that painters’ experience of the outside world from a leisure standpoint of life and changes in the way they painted their works were replaced by systematic methods associated with studying in a foreign country during the modern period. Amid the shift in paradigm from a leisure way of life to studying in a foreign country, many local art students came to study in Japan. Japanese teachers’ ways of painting influenced Korean students and it played a crucial role in the reformation of local circles of traditional painters. This study shed light on what the Korean student who studied in Japan did for developing Oriental paintings in their home country, with the focus on their favorite Japanese teachers and teaching institutions, and what influence was made on other young Korean artists. In the last chapter, this study checked the Hwasuk run by two painters Kim Eun­ho and Lee Sang­beom for students wishing to be selected at the government­run annual events. They were painters who cooperated with the government and represented the two different ways of painting pictures in the modern period. Oriental painting education, which came to be adopted with the emergence of modern concepts of education, resulted in Hwasuk, a traditional method of education in the late 1930s and thereafter, which was paradoxical enough. Hwasuk education has been regarded as an example that points to the backwardness of traditional circles of painters. Critics have said that Hwasuk was no more than an “inferior” alternative to formal art education, which people in the colony could hardly afford. Here, it is necessary to check to see whether such a view was not based on the prejudice that formal school education was far more superior to Hwasuk. We should stop and think whether the negative view of Hwasuk as a backward way of education serves as a prejudice against the painters who were taught there and their style of painting. A study like this is an attempt to check the role played by educational institutions that taught aspiring painters in the period when traditional paintings switched to Oriental paintings in the modern period and what impact they made in different countries (e.g. Korea and Japan), different regions (central areas and provinces), different levels (professionals and amateurs), and different educational institutions (formal school and Hwasuk). Keeping in mind that an attempt like this to delve into circles of Oriental painters in the modern period can get substantial results by making thorough analysis of the characteristics of the relevant educational institutions and curricula run by them, this study reviewed publications and historical materials concerning it was time to get an accurate grasp of reality and recheck the nature of the relevant educational institutions.
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