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조선시대 童子石人 연구
- 조선시대 童子石人 연구
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- Stone Statues of Boys attendant in Joseon Dynasty : Focusing on Royal Graveyard in Seoul and Gyong-gi area of 16th thru 18th century
- Issue Date
- 대학원 미술사학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 조선시대의 무덤은 묘주의 신분에 따라 능(陵)·원(園)·묘(墓)로 구분되며, 분묘의 위계에 맞춰 석물을 조성하여 묘역을 치장하였다. 그 중 석인(石人)은 사람의 형상을 한 조각상으로 조선시대에는 문석인(文石人)과 무석인(武石人), 그리고 동자석인(童子石人) 등이 조성되었다. 동자석인은 쌍계를 하고 지물을 든 채 상석 바로 가까이에서 공손히 시립한 형상으로 왕릉에는 나타나지 않으며 16~18세기에 걸쳐 원·묘에 조성되다 사라진 독특한 석인이다. 본 논고는 동자석인의 출현부터 소멸에 이르기까지의 현상과 원인에 대해 당시의 시대상과 문화적·사상적 제반 요소를 바탕으로 고찰하였다.;Stone figures of tombs, showing the dignity, were built according to the owner's class rank in East Asia. Out of those, Stone statues all in shape of real person are the major figures decorating and protecting tombs. Stone statues has consisted of Stone Statues of scholarly officials, military officials and boys attendant in Joseon Dynasty. Stone stautes of boys attendant have appearance of a small child in pigtail placed right next to the stone table. Stone statues of boys attendant are not part of royal tombs and only seen in ordinary graves and later vanished. This research focused on the social phenomenon and cause to initiation/vanishment of Stone statues of boys attendant according to the phase and culture of the time.
Around the 16th century master craftsman's system broke off and governmental craftsmen disappeared which eventually led monk stonemason to produce stone statues personally. Monk stonemason's work initiated a Buddhist motives and new pattern of artwork. Also It was popular to have a boys attendant in the sumptuous moods of that era. All together all these elements of that time combined together and the stone statues of boys attendant started to emerge. Meanwhile. wooden statues of boys attendant in Buddhist temples were very similar in shape and role of caretaker to the stone statues of boys attendant, which show they had an close influence to each other.
Stone statues of boys attendant prospered in noble graveyard of Seoul and Gyeon-gi area in 16th through 18th century. Changes in patterns of Stone statues of Boys attendant can be divided into 3 phases. First phase is from the early 16th century to the mid 16th century, its' lively facial expression and pose are realistic. Its' Lotus pedestal and delicate clothes shows that Buddhist wooden statues of boys attendant had a firm influence on the stone statues of boys attendant.
Second phase starts in the late 16th century and peaks it's popular style in the early 17th century. from this time The arrangement of Stone statues were influenced by Neo - Confucianism. Under this situation, Stone statues of boys attendant's physical appearance also loses flexibility and turns into more geometric design holding things in hands and starts to have regular creases in cloths.
Third phase starts from late 17th century and stone statues of boys attendant start to decrease in number. In this time stone statues shows similarity to the statues of the second phase. Also combined with the shape of stone statues of scholarly officials and vanishes before the mid 18th century. The main reason for this is that as the study for Neo - Confucianism intensified from late 17th century, stone figures in graveyard had lost its' Buddhist characteristics and Confucian pattern emerged for changes in crafts. Buddhist motives are gradually disappeared from All stoneworks and Stone statues of boys attendant had decreased and vanished eventually.
Likewise, stone statues were new attempt a part from Royal tombs and other stone figures. From its' initiation to vanishment it portrays the timely importance and culture of that time. In pattern, it shows similarity to the Buddhist sculptures. while stone statues of boys attendant in Royal tombs were rather conservative, other shape of stone statues of boys attendant played major role in diversification of statues in Joseon Dynasty.
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