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십오세기국어의 서법연구

십오세기국어의 서법연구
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대학원 국어국문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
This article deals with the mood system of the 15th century Korean on the synchronic point of view. The mood system is divided into three types: the Indicative, the Emotional and the Imperative. The distinction between the Indicative mood and the Emotional mood is apparently different from the distinction between the Indicative and Subjunctive moods in English. That is, the mood systems of the two languages are different from each other in that the implications of the subcategories of the mood system in the two languages show different features. For one thing, the Emotional mood in Korean which is contrasted to the Indicative mood cannot be identifies with the Subjunctive mood in English. This difference, in consequence, bring about the differences in Indicative mood of the two languages. Much has been studied about the Emotional mood in Korean. Morphome {-o-} is generally conceived of as one of the most typical features of this mood. two prominently controversial theories have been proposed about this morpheme. One of them asserts that the morpheme stands for “first person inflectional suffix”; the other clasims that it is “a volitive form as a prefinal ending.” This article attempts to criticize both of these theories and tries to explain that this {-o-} represents the presence of an emotional emphasis in the attitude of the speaker. I have come to a conclusion that the presence of an emotional emphasis, the distinctive feature of the Emotional mood which distinguishes it from the Indicative mood, is signaled by the morpheme {-o-}. The Indicative mood consists of non-Emotional and objective expressions of things; the Emotional mood consists of emotionally emphasized expressions of all the subjective and objective world. The Emotional mood can be divided into subjective Emotional mood and objective Emotional mood according to the point of views of the speaker. The analogy is that the former is the viewpoints of the actors on the stage; the latter, the spectators. When the speaker subjectively expresses his own thought and acts with emotional emphasis, the subjective Emotional mood is used (he-no-la ‘x노라’);whereas, when he objectively expresses the objective world with emotional emphasis, the objective Emotional mood is used (he-not-ta, ‘x놋다’). When he expresses the objective world with no emotional emphasis, however, the Indicative mood is adopted. The similarities of the inflexion also back up the choice of the emotional emphasis as more primary a condition of division than the point of view. In studying the Indicative mood, it is shown that there are two kinds of “forms of statement”: (A) Predicative statement, and (B) quasi-Nominative statement. (A) (B) he-ne-ta ‘xx다’ he-ne-ni-la ‘xx니라’ /he-/ stem /he-/ stem /-ne-/ tense, present /-ne/ present, movement aspect, movement /-n/ adjectival Verb- Suffix /-ta/ declrative verb-suffix /-i-/ a formal noun+zero morph of noun-verbalizer, {-i-} /-la/ the morph of verb- suffix {-ta} These two forms of statement can be found in both declarative sentences and interrogative sentences: 1. Declarative sentences (A) he-ne-ta: (B) ha-ne-ni-la: 2. Interrogative sentences (A) a. he-nen-ka: b.he-nen-ko: c, he-nen-ta: x x 가 x x 고 x x 다 (B) a. he-ne-ni-a b. he-ne-ni-o x x 니아 x x 니 오 According to the syntactic conditions of the ‘position’ of the interrogative, interrogative sentences can be divisded of the interrogative, interrogative sentences can be divided into three group: a. interrogative sentences with ‘preposed’ interrogative, b. interrogative sentences with no ‘preposed’ interrogative and c. interrogative sentences with no connections with the positions of interrogative. The Imperative mood can be divided into four types according to the way the speaker asks for the responses of the hearer. 1. Imperative mood : The speaker asks for a direct response of the hearer. 2. Entreative mood : This is the Imperative mood with the addition of an entreat of the speaker. 3. Optative mood : The speaker indirectly asks for the hearer’s response by expressing waht the subject of the sentence wishes to have happened to himself. 4. Propositive mood : The speaker asks the hearer to take a certain action along with himself. By studying the moods, it is also proved that the grammatical system of honorification of the Korean language in the 15th century had three speech levels with respect to honorifics. Moreover, the writer could have also found out that there are two “aspects” in the present tense, motion and non-motion aspects; and two past tenses confirmatory and reglectionary; and a future tense.
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