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다문화 시각에서 접근한 다문화 가정의 결혼이주여성을 위한 영양교육 방안

다문화 시각에서 접근한 다문화 가정의 결혼이주여성을 위한 영양교육 방안
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Nutrition Education for Female Immigrants in Multicultural families from Multicultural Approach: In-depth Interviews of Female Immigrants and Nutrition Education Professionals
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임상보건과학대학원 임상보건학과임상영양학전공
이화여자대학교 임상보건과학대학원
Due to the and demographical factors such as factors such as the reduction in fertility rate and socio-cultural factors such as changes in values, the number of marriages between Korean men and foreign women has increased by 47 times in the past 15 years in our society. Due to the increase in the international marriages, Korea’s family forms havetransformed into a variety of structures and thus in March of 2008, Multicultural Family Support Act was reenacted and the ‘multicultural family’ has been in use as the official term. Ever-increasing number of migrant women in multicultural families faces difficult situations in terms of language barrier, the difference in perspectives due to the cultural difference and the fact that they are immediately given the responsibility for preparing meals as a member of the family while adjusting to the family culture and new environment. Thus, in this study, the survey was conducted for 30 migrant women to examine the general details, dietary behaviors and nutritional knowledge. Furthermore to establish the need for nutrition education and detailed educational contents, 8 women selected from 30 subjects were given in-depth interview and the in-depth interview with the expert, proposing the nutrition educational program for the migrant women in multicultural families. The results are summarized as follows. The results on the dietary behavior of migrant women in multicultural families showed that 18 subjects responded that the meals were prepared by them (62.1%), 5 (17.2%) by their children and 3 (10.3%) by the parents respectively. In terms of eating habits, 11 (36.7%) subjects responded by stating that they ‘never skip meals,’ while 11 responded that they (36.7%), ‘skip once or twice in a week,’ and 8 (26.7%) were found to ‘skip more than 3 meals in a week’ respectively. 19 (63.3%) respondents answered to ‘average’ for the meal time which was the height. As for the consumption of their native food, 16 respondents (53.3 %) were found to eat 1~2 times a month. In terms of what is considered most important when choosing food, nutrition was selected as being most important by 16 respondents (53.3%)and the taste was selected by 11 (36.7%). For favorite food, meat was selected by 10 respondents (33.3%) and grains by 8(26.7%) followed by vegetables and fruits by 8 (26.7%). As for the question asking the degree of difficulty in adjusting to Korean food, 10 respondents (33.3%), answered as being ‘a little difficult’ followed by 9 (30.0%) who answered to ‘very difficult’ and as the reasonfor the difficulty, 11 respondents (53.3%), said that they find the food too hot and salty(44.0%) followed by 8 (32.0) who said that they are not familiar with the cooking style. The results from migrant women in multicultural families on the overall assessment on diet scored 33.5 out of 50 points for 10 questions. From the analysis for each individual question, the respondents scored higher than the overall average in the questions such as ‘eat vegetables besides Kimchi for every meal,’ ‘eat fruits or drink fruit juice every day’, and ‘tend to add more salts or soy sauce during meals’. On the other hand, the respondents scored low compared to the overall average for the following questions, such as ‘I eat three meals a day regularly,’ ‘I eat ice creams, cookies or carbonated drinks for snack more than twice in a week,’ ‘I eat meat with high fat content more than twice in a week,’ and ‘I eat fried or stir-fried food more than twice in a week. The analysis on the difference in diets according to the duration of stay in Korea showed a statistically significant difference in the questions, ‘I tend to consume evenly between the nutrition groups’ among groups. (t=-2.428,p<.05) For the group whose duration of stay was less than 5 years, it was found to be 3.00 while for the group with over 5 years of stay, 3.69, showing the higher figure. In addition, in the overall score for diets was found to be high in the group, whose duration of stay was over 5 years, indicating a statically significant difference. (t=-2.123,p<.05) The analysis on the results from examining the difference in diets depending on the number of children showed a statistically significant difference between the groups who answered to ‘eat meats with high fat content more than twice in a week,’ and ‘tend to add more salts or soy sauce during meals.’ (t=-2.060,p<.05), (t=2.424,p<.05) 2.64 was found for the question ‘I eat meat with high fat content more than twice in a week,’ for the group with no children while 3.42 was found for the group with children, indicating more significant difference. As for the question, ‘I tend to add more salts or soy sauce for meals,’ 4.09 was found for the group without children while 3.37 for the group with children. Thus the average found was found to be higher for the group without children. As for the results on the nutrition knowledge for the migrant women in multicultural families, they scored 6.01 out of the total of 10 and the questions which had high accuracy were the question about the food which is high in calcium. 26 answered (86.67%) the question about calcium correctly while and the questions with low percent correct was the question about the nutrient causing the anemia and the question about the food with highest calories. The number of respondents who answered incorrectly was 19(63.33%), which was more than half of the total respondents. The following results were found from the analysis on the views including the derived topics and categories based on the results from the in-depth interviews. The nutrition education for the migrant women in multicultural families should all proceed in the basic level in terms of language and contents. First by using bilingual (Korean and their native language) education materials, it showed that the education should consist of fundamental and essential contents such as Korean ingredients, table settingas well as the educational contents for each life cycle. Depending on Korean compression and the duration of stay, the educational topics and contents must be strengthened, and thewrong nutritional facts learnt from their native lands or religious traditions must be corrected. According to the conditions of themigrant women, for those who have the communicative ability, the comprehensive education to increase the closeness with Koreans must be applied. For the migrant women who experiencea sense of isolation due to the comradeship with the people from the same culture and extreme stress from culture shock, the separated education should be given and for those who cannot communicate at the slightest, the nutritional knowledge must be transferred to the families themselves so that the women can learn directly and thus, the class for each subject and the customized class for each subjectaccording to the level of social adaptability to Korea must be applied. The post-education management for the migrant women whose level of Korean comprehension is low is needed for them to go over the materials they have learnt andspecific and easy terms should be used to communicate the materials. After the theoretical education, the practice and practical educational method using the educational tools and mediums must follow as well. For the active and effective nutritional education for the migrant women in multicultural families, the policy supports and the fostering of personnel according to more systemized education plan by the government are in need and the cooperation and the implementation between the departments of the multicultural agencies must be actively promoted. For the nutritional education to develop from the angle of multicultural approach, environment for multicultural educational environment must be provided and the cultural acceptanceand consideration towards the minorities would be required. Because the social institution or the order for the multicultural nutrition center has not been established nor stabilized, the effective cooperative system between the government and civil organizations should be built. Furthermore, the basic statistics on the dietary behaviors and the status of health for migrant women for different countries are lacking thus the data base which shows such data at one glance must be established. Thus the view for Korea’s multicultural education should deviate from the assimilation to Korea culture but switch to education which embraces the diversity in cultures. In the aspect of nutrition education, by properly using the fields of ‘nutrition,’ ‘food,’and ‘culture’ the nutrition education program that fosters the multicultural sensitivity based on the multiculturalism and not assimilation into Korea, to adapt to Korean society would be integral.;우리 사회는 출산율 감소, 여성 독신자 증가 등 인구학적 요인과 가치관의 변화와 같은 사회문화적인 요인에 의해 최근 15년간 한국남성과 외국여성 사이의 결혼이 47배나 증가하였다. 국제결혼 증가로 인해 우리나라의 가족형태도 다양한 구조로 변화되어 2008년 3월 다문화가족지원법이 제정 공포되고,‘다문화가족’이라는 용어가 공식적으로 사용되고 있다. 이렇게 급속히 증가하고 있는 다문화 가정 이주여성들은 언어 갈등의 문제, 문화차이에서 오는 인식의 문제와 이민 후 바로 국내 가족의 한 구성원으로 새로운 환경과 가정문화에 적응하여 식사준비를 책임져야 하는 어려운 실정에 놓여있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 이주여성들의 일반적 사항과 식생활 행태 및 영양지식을 알아보고자 설문조사를 실시하였고 영양교육의 필요성과 세부적인 교육내용을 구축하고자 이주여성들과의 심층 인터뷰와 전문가 심층 인터뷰를 실시하여 다문화 가정 이주여성을 위한 영양교육 프로그램을 제안하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 다문화 가정 이주여성들을 위한 영양교육은 내용과 언어 측면 모두 기초과정으로 전개해야 한다. 먼저 이중 언어(한글과 그들의 모국어)로 된 교육 자료를 활용하며 한국 식재료 및 상차림과 생애주기별 교육내용 등 기초적이며 필수적인 내용으로 구성해야 한다고 나타내었다. 한국어 이해능력과 거주기간에 따라 교육 주제 및 내용이 심화되어야 하며 본국에서 익힌 잘못된 영양지식과 종교에 따른 속설을 올바르게 교정해 주어야 하는 내용도 필요하다고 나타났다. 이주여성 여건에 맞게 의사소통이 가능한 이주여성에게는 한국인들과 함께 친밀도를 높일 수 있는 통합교육으로, 같은 문화권 사람들과의 동료의식 및 극심한 문화적응스트레스와 이질감을 갖고 있는 이주여성에게는 분리교육으로, 의사소통이 전혀 이루어지지 않는 이주여성에게는 가족들에게 영양지식을 전달하여 가정에서 직접 체득할 수 있게 대상별 눈높이와 한국 사회적응에 따른 대상별 맞춤 클래스를 적용해야 한다는 결과를 나타내었다. 언어의 이해 능력이 부족한 이주여성들에게는 교육했던 내용을 상기할 수 있는 교육 후 관리가 필요하고 내용을 전달할 때에는 구체적이고 쉬운 용어를 사용하며 이론 교육 후에는 실습과 교육도구 및 매체를 활용한 실질적인 교육 방법들을 사용해야 한다고 나타내었다. 다문화 가정 이주여성을 위한 원활한 영양교육이 이루어지기 위해서는 체계적 교육 계획에 따른 정부의 정책적 지원과 인력 양성이 필요하며 다문화 관련기간의 부서별 연계로 협력과 시행이 적극적으로 이루어져야 한다고 나타내었다. 다문화 시각에서 접근한 영양교육이 이루어지기 위해서는 다문화적 교육여건이 조성되어야 하고 소수자에 대한 문화적 관용성과 배려의식이 필요하다고 보여 졌으며, 아직 다문화 영양교육에 대한 사회적 제도와 질서가 확립되지 않은 불안정한 상태이기 때문에 정부와 민간단체의 효율적인 협력체계가 이루어져야 한다고 나타났다. 그리고 각 나라별 이주여성에 따른 식사행태 및 건강상태를 보여주는 기초통계자료가 없기 때문에 이런 자료들을 한 눈에 알아 볼 수 있는 데이터베이스가 구축되어야 한다고 나타났다. 앞으로 우리나라의 다문화 교육 관점이 한국 동화주의에서 벗어나 문화의 다양성을 인정하는 교육으로 전환하여 영양교육 측면에서도 영양’식품’문화’의 분야를 적절히 사용하여 한국의 동화주의가 아닌 다문화주의에 기초한 다문화 감수성을 키우며 한국 사회에 적응해 나가는 영양교육 프로그램이 계속 개발되어 적용하는 것이 중요하다고 사료된다.
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