View : 134 Download: 0

웹 기반 팀 토론 학습에서 인지스타일, 임파워먼트, 창의적 행동, 팀 내 상호작용, 과제성취도 간의 관계 규명

Title
웹 기반 팀 토론 학습에서 인지스타일, 임파워먼트, 창의적 행동, 팀 내 상호작용, 과제성취도 간의 관계 규명
Other Titles
Investigating the Relationships among Cognition Style, Empowerment, Creative Activity, Team-Interaction Pattern and Achievement in Web-based Team Argument Learning
Authors
김지은
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 교육공학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김영수
Abstract
구성주의 이론적 관점이 교수-학습 활동에 영향을 미치면서, 학습자가 학습의 전 과정에 능동적으로 참여하는 주체자로서의 역할을 하게 되었다. 이는 교수-학습 활동에서 교수자가 학습자에게 지식을 전달하는 일방향적 의사소통이 아닌 쌍방향적 상호작용을 통해 더욱 다양한 정보와 지식, 경험을 주고받을 수 있게 된 것이다. 특히 요즘은 웹기반 협력 학습의 중요성이 대두되면서 웹을 기반으로 팀 단위 토론이 진행되는 경우가 많아졌다. 웹 기반 팀 토론 학습은 학생들이 인터넷을 활용하여 다양한 정보를 수집하도록 돕고, 다른 사람들과 정보를 교환하고 논의하는 가운데 학습자와 교수자, 학습자와 학습자 간의 역동적인 상호작용을 가능하게 하며, 다른 학습자들의 관점과 사고방식도 쉽게 습득할 수 있도록 한다(Faust & Skvoretz, 2002). 그러므로 웹기반 팀 토론 학습은 학습하는 동안 학습자들이 동등한 위치에서 지속적으로 문제해결과 의사결정, 반성적 사고의 능력을 개발할 수 있고, 지식의 재구성을 경험할 수 있는 학습 방법이다(Liu & Hsiao, 2002). 웹 기반 토론을 통해 양질의 결과를 얻기 위해서는 팀을 구성하는 개별 학습자들이 활발한 의사소통을 할 수 있어야 하고(임규연, 허희옥, 김영수, 2009), 학습자에게 인지적인 도전감과 동기를 부여하며, 자발적 사고과정을 통해 문제해결을 유도할 수 있는 학습 환경 조성이 중요하다(임정훈, 1999a). 이는 학습자가 자신이 다루는 지식, 정보에서 그 의미를 구성하고, 자신 스스로에게 내적 타당성을 갖도록 만들어 주는 것을 뜻하는데, 기존의 웹을 기반으로 하는 토론 수업에서 학습자 특성 변인에 대한 다양한 연구들(강오한, 류수영, 2002; 김태웅, 2009; 김태웅, 박인우, 2008; 박명숙, 2003; 박인우, 박은실, 2000; 백현수, 2005; 정재삼, 임규연, 2000)의 결과를 보면, 웹 기반 토론 학습상황에서의 학습자의 개인적 특성 측면을 중요시 하고 있고, 학습자 특성에 기초한 교수 학습 전략을 세우는 것이 중요하다는 것을 알 수 있다. 이에 따라 웹 기반 팀 학습에서 목표 한 바를 성공으로 이끌고, 학습자들의 활발하고 적극적인 상호작용을 유발하는 하나의 요소로 Spiro(1995)는 인지적 융통성 이론(Cognitive Flexibility Theory)을 통해 학습자들의 인지스타일, 즉 다양한 방법으로 급변하는 상황적 요구에 유연하게 대처하는 능력이 지식을 구성하는데 필요하다고 하였다(강인애, 1996; Spiro, 1988). 또한 개인의 심리적 임파워먼트(empowerment)란 주어진 일을 할 수 있다는 믿음이나 판단, 자기 효능감(self-efficacy)을 부여하는 과정으로(Conger & Kanungo, 1988), 임파워먼트를 통해 학습자들은 자율적, 적극적, 능동적으로 행동하고, 학습 활동에 몰입하며, 학습 자체에 만족을 하게 된다고 알려져 있다. 개인적 특성들은 웹 기반 팀 토론 학습 활동에서 적극적으로 팀의 활동에 임하도록 하기 때문에 팀 내 상호작용을 활발히 진행하는 것을 돕고, 이에 따라 학습자들은 좀 더 새롭고 독창적인 결과를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 예상해 볼 수 있다. 새롭고 독창적 결과는 팀 구성원의 창의적 행동 즉, 문제 해결 과정에서 새롭고 유용한 아이디어를 도출하고, 창의적으로 작업하는 것으로(배고은, 1998), 특히 요즘과 같이 사회가 급변하고 다룰 수 있는 정보의 양이 많아진 때에는 과제 수행 시, 경쟁 우위 확보를 위해 구성원 개인의 창의적 행동이 절대적으로 필요하다(김인수, 1990). 이처럼 웹을 기반으로 하는 학습 활동에서 동료 학습자와의 적극적인 상호작용은 다양한 경험을 접할 수 있도록 돕고(Duffy & Cunningham, 1996; Jonassen, 1991), 사회적, 인지적, 메타 인지적 측면에서 긍정적 효과를 미칠 뿐 아니라, 팀 내의 친밀도와 역동성을 높여줌으로써 팀 성과에도 영향을 미칠 수 있다(조일현, 2003). 팀 토론 학습 활동에서 팀 내 상호작용은 학습자들이 학습에 대한 흥미와 만족, 학습 과제 성취도 등 수업의 질적 향상에도 많은 영향을 미치고 있고(정인성, 임철일, 최성희, 임정훈, 2000; McLoughlin, 1999; Stevenson, Sander, & Naylor, 1996), 이러한 상호작용 촉진을 위한 교수-학습 방법 전략에 대한 연구의 필요성도 증대 되었다. 또한 토론 학습은 팀 단위의 활동을 통해 이루어지므로 팀 내에서 구성원들 간 상호작용에 대해 분석하는 것이 중요하다(김용학, 2004). 이에 따라 본 연구의 목적은 웹 기반 팀 토론 학습 상황에서 학습자의 개인적 특성인 인지 스타일과 심리적 임파워먼트, 팀 내 상호작용(내향 연결중심성, 외향 연결중심성), 창의적 행동, 과제 성취도간의 관계를 규명하고, 임파워먼트가 인지스타일과 팀 내 상호작용, 창의적 행동, 과제 성취도간의 관계에 매개적 역할을 하는지 살펴보는데 있다. 본 연구의 결과가 웹기반 팀 토론 학습에서 학습자의 개인적 특성을 고려한 협력학습 진행 및 창의적 행동과 팀 구성원 간의 상호작용, 더불어 과제에 대한 성취도를 높이기 위한 교수 설계 방안에 시사점을 제공할 수 있다는 점에서 본 연구의 의의가 있다고 하겠다.;Today, as he constructivism have affected teaching activities, learner is participate in class as an active main agent of learning activity. It can make interactive communication between teacher and students and exchange more various information, knowledge and influences. Especially, as web-based collaborative learning is emphasized, there are many cases to progress online argument learning nowaday. The web-based team argument learning is known as a effective students to get various information using by internet, and to build collaborative knowledge through interaction among learners. Therefore, to get an effective performance through the web-based team argument learning, the learners should have active communication each others, teacher should make good learning environment which students can do problem-solving through voluntary thing process to get motivation, cognitive challenge. It means that it is needed students to get intrinsic validity for themselves and construct new meaning in the given knowledge and information. As refer to the previous studies, in web-based argument learning, to build strategy based on the learner characteristic is important to attain the performance. As a learner characteristic which affects interaction in collaborative learning, learner's cognitive style and empowerment can be examples. The cognitive style is a kind of skill that can do flexible management at changeable demands, and empowerment is the process of giving a self-efficacy and truth to myself. It can be done positively and actively absorbed in their own work through helping each others and exchange useful ideas by learner, so they can satisfy their learning activities. Also, we can expect the output as well will be creative and useful. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the characteristics of interaction within teams in the web-based team argument learning through the degree centrality of the social network analysis and to verify that creative activity and achievement will be affected by the cognitive style and empowerment, To reflecting such the purpose, the specific research questions were as below. 1. Is there any significant correlation between learners' cognitive style, empowerment, creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality) and achievement in web-based team argument learning? 2. Does learners' cognitive style significant predict the empowerment, creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality) and achievement in web-based team argument learning? 2-1. Does learners' cognitive style significant predict the empowerment? 2-2. Does learners' cognitive style significant predict creative activity? 2-3. Does learners' cognitive style significant predict the interaction within team(degree centrality)? 2-4. Does learners' cognitive style significant predict the achievement? 3. Does learners' empowerment significant predict creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality) and achievement in web-based team argument learning? 3-1. Does learners'empowerment significant predict creative activity? 3-2. Does learners' empowerment significant predict the interaction within team(degree centrality)? 3-3. Does learners' empowerment significant predict the achievement? 4. Does learners' empowerment mediators effect among cognitive style, creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality) and achievement in web-based team argument learning? In this study, the participants are 36 students who took the 'Learning message design' course at an E university located in Seoul, Korea. To achieve the purpose of this research a survey was conducted on the participants who is classified 7 team randomly by teacher for a web-based team argument learning from September to December 2010. Each teams for web-based team argument learning had four to seven members. Before starting the argument learning, cognitive style and empowerment test was conducted. Through interaction within teams, it was checked that in-degree centrality and out-degree centrality by coding of interaction on the number of messages written in the web-based learning environment. After finishing the team argument learning, creative activity and achievement test was carried out. The major findings of this research are as follows: Frist, as a result of correlation analysis, learners' cognitive style has positive correlation with empowerment(r= .433) and creative activity(r= .355). However, it has nothing to do with empowerment and creative activity. And out-degree centrality has positive correlation with achievement(r= .524). Second, findings from regression analysis on learner’s cognitive style, empowerment, creative activity, the interaction within team (degree centrality), and achievement are as the following. Even if cognitive style was not found to be a variable significantly predicting achievement, but cognitive style was found to be a variable positively and significantly predict empowerment(β=.433, <.01) and creative activity(β=.355, <.05). Also empowerment was not predict to creative activity. And it has nothing to do with interaction within team (degree centrality) and except for meaning of empowerment. it has meaningful effect between the only self-determination of empowerment and achievement. In the regression analysis in order to verify the mediating effect of empowerment among cognitive style and creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality), achievement in web-based team argument learning, it shows that empowerment play no mediating role in the relation among cognitive style and creative activity, the interaction within team(degree centrality), achievement. As a result, it was shown that cognitive style had a significant effect on empowerment, creative activity as same as previous research results. even if learners' cognitive style have no significant effect on the interaction within team(degree centrality) and achievement in web-based team argument learning. Therefore, when teacher design web-based collaborative learning, it is need to study about learners' characteristic variable to get more effective interaction within the team, and it is also needed to search some methods to get better achievement. Based on these findings, the following suggestions are proposed for further studies. First of all, based on the result of learners' cognitive style and empowerment can be found to be a variable positively and significantly predict creative activity each, further studies about teacher's role or team leader's role are needed to derive learners' creative activity in the web-based team argument learning. Second, as this research was not same as previous studies, especially, in the relation between empowerment and creative activity, this study was confirmed that there was any relations, so further studies will be needed for them. Also, the relation between extrinsic motivation such as feedback, punishment, compliment as well as empowerment that intrinsic motivation is enlarged and creative activity, achievement. Third, it was only considered that quantitative messages which written and answered between members and the directions through the quantification for the quantity of the interaction using the social networking analysis in this study. Therefore, the qualitative analysis of the interaction within team should be performed. In terms of learners' characteristic, the contents itself and the way of express message can be different.
Fulltext
Show the fulltext
Appears in Collections:
일반대학원 > 교육공학과 > Theses_Master
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML


qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE