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초등 통합학급 또래도우미 활동이 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계와 장애학생의 학교생활적응에 미치는 영향

Title
초등 통합학급 또래도우미 활동이 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계와 장애학생의 학교생활적응에 미치는 영향
Other Titles
The effects of peer supporter activities on the friendship among children with and without disabilities and on the school adjustment of children with disabilities
Authors
허희선
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
교육대학원 특수교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
박승희
Abstract
통합교육의 궁극적인 목표는 장애학생이 일반학교 환경에서 다양성을 인정받으며 동년배 또래들과 공통된 학교생활을 공유하고 상호작용할 수 있는 지원 체제를 구축하는데 있다. 장애학생에게 또래의 지원과 긍정적인 상호작용은 학교에 원만하게 적응하는데 도움을 주며, 성공적인 사회적 통합을 가능하게 한다. 이러한 목표를 달성하기 위해서는 학교나 교사 차원의 체계적이고 구조적인 지원 노력이 필요하다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 초등학교 통합학급 학생들을 대상으로 또래도우미 활동을 실시하여 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계와 장애학생의 학교생활적응도에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 알아보고자 하였다. 본 연구의 참여자는 경기 지역의 초등학교 2학년 학생 중 학교생활적응에 어려움을 겪고 있는 장애학생 2명과 각 장애학생이 속한 2개의 통합학급의 비장애학생들이며, 1학급씩 실험집단과 통제집단으로 나누었다. 독립변인은 비장애학생들이 장애학생에게 학교생활적응을 위한 지원을 제공하는 또래도우미 활동으로 실험집단에 9주 동안 실시하였고, 통제집단은 프로그램을 실시하지 않았다. 또래도우미 활동이란, 8조로 편성된 학급 전체 비장애학생들이 각 조별로 일주일씩 돌아가며 장애학생에게 일상적인 학교 일과인 학습․생활․이동․놀이 영역에서 지원 활동을 하는 것이다. 중재는 교사에 의한 또래도우미 선정, 교육, 강화 및 평가가 이루어지고, 장애학생과 비장애학생은 또래도우미 활동 및 통합 강화 활동에 참여하였다. 측정도구는 첫째, 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계 변화를 알아보기 위해 오선영(2000)의 ‘친구관계에 관한 질문지’를 사용하여 사전 - 사후의 변화를 공분산분석을 통해 살펴보았다. 둘째, 장애학생의 학교생활적응도 변화는 이윤경(2007)의 ‘장애학생의 학교생활적응도에 관한 질문지’를 수정․보완하여 사용하였으며, 실험집단과 통제집단 장애학생을 대상으로 사전 - 중간 - 사후의 변화율을 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 또래도우미 활동에 참여한 실험집단이 참여하지 않은 통제집단에 비해 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계에서 유의미한 향상을 보였다. 친구관계 하위영역인 공유활동, 친사회적 행동, 친밀감, 애착과 자존심 고양, 신의, 갈등 및 갈등해결 모두 실험집단이 통제집단에 비해 통계적으로 유의미하게 향상되었다. 둘째, 장애학생의 학교생활적응도의 변화는 또래도우미 활동에 참여하지 않은 통제집단의 장애학생의 경우 학교생활적응도가 소폭 향상한 반면, 또래도우미 활동에 참여한 실험집단의 장애학생은 큰 폭으로 향상되었다. 학교생활적응의 하위 영역별 변화를 살펴보면 통제집단 장애학생의 경우 수업태도, 학교규칙의 일부 영역에서만 소폭 향상을 보인 반면, 실험집단 장애학생은 수업태도, 교우관계, 긍정적 개인행동, 학교규칙의 전반적인 하위 영역에서 많은 향상을 보였다. 이와 같은 연구 결과는 초등학교 통합학급 또래도우미 활동이 비장애학생의 장애학생과의 친구관계를 개선시키고, 장애학생의 학교생활적응도를 높여줄 있음을 시사한다. 본 연구는 또래도우미 활동에 학급 전체 학생들이 참여하였고, 프로그램의 계획과 실행․평가에 이르는 전반적인 과정을 특수교사와 통합학급 교사가 협력하여 진행한 연구라는 점에서 의의를 지닌다. 앞으로 일반학교에 통합된 장애학생들의 학교생활적응을 돕고, 장애학생과 비장애학생의 친구관계 형성을 지원하기 위한 프로그램 개발 및 실행 연구가 더욱 활발하게 이루어져야 할 것이다.;The ultimate objective of inclusive education is to build a support system in which students with disabilities are able to interact and share a common school life with peers in the same age group in the ordinary environment of a general school while receiving recognition of diversity. For students with disabilities, the support from peers of the same age and positive mutual interactions make it possible for them to adjust smoothly to school and achieve successful social integration. To fulfill these objectives, efforts toward systematic support on the level of the school administration or the teachers are necessary. Therefore, the present research implemented peer supporter activities conducted by elementary inclusive classes to identify what kind of effect such activities had on the level of adjustment to school achieved by students with disabilities and the friendship held by students without disabilities toward the disabled students. The participants in this research were selected from students in the second grade of an elementary school located in the Gyeonggi-do region, and consisted of 2 students with disabilities experiencing difficulty in adjusting to school and the 60 students without disabilities who were members of the 2 inclusive classes to which the 2 disabled students respectively belonged. Each single class was divided into an experimental group and a control group. The independent variable was the peer supporter activity in which students without disabilities provided the disabled student with support for adjustment to school , and this activity was conducted over the course of 9 weeks by the experimental group of students, while the control group did not participate. Peer supporter activity refers to the activity in which all of the non-disabled students in the class who were organized into 8 teams took turns by team to provide supporting assistive activities for the student with disabilities in the areas of study, daily activities, movement between locations, and play which constituted the ordinary daily school routine. For mediation, this research first relied on the teacher to assign, educate, strengthen and evaluate peer supporter, and the student with disabilities and those without disabilities participated in the peer supporter activity and the inclusive strengthening activity. As for the tool of measurement, first, the changes in the friendship directed by the students without disabilities toward the disabled students were examined by means of an analysis of covariance of the changes before and after the activity using the “Questionnaire Regarding Friend Relationships” by Seon-Young Oh (2000). Secondly, in order to identify the changes in the level of adjustment to school experienced by the student with disability, the “Questionnaire Regarding the Level of Adjustment to School Life by Students with Disabilities” composed by Yoon-Gyeong Lee (2007) was used in a modified and supplemented form. The rate of change before, during and after the activity was analyzed for the students with disabilities respectively assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The results of this research were as follows. First, in terms of the changes in friendship experienced by students without disabilities toward the disabled student, the experimental group which participated in the peer supporter activity demonstrated a significant improvement in comparison to the control group. In all sub-fields of friendships including shared activities, pro-social behavior, intimacy, trust, attachment and strengthening of self-esteem, and conflicts and conflict resolution, the experimental group experienced a statistically significant improvement over the control group. Secondly, regarding the changes in the degree of adjustment to school by the student with disabilities, while the disabled student belonging to the control group which did not participate in the same-age peer supporter activity exhibited a small margin of improvement in the level of adjustment to school , by contrast the student with disabilities within the experimental group which participated in the peer supporter activity experienced a great enhancement in all four of the sub-fields including attitude during class, relationships with classmates, positive individual behavior, and response to school rules. The above results derived from this research signify that supporter activities by classmates of the same age group in an inclusived class heightens the level of adjustment to school experienced by students with disabilities and can induce improvements in friendships held by students without disabilities toward the disabled student. This study is significant in that all of the students belonging to a class participated in the peer supporter activity designed for elementary school classmates of the same age and that the research proceeded with the collaboration of the special education teacher and the inclusive class teacher throughout the entire process of the program, from planning to execution and evaluation. Henceforth, there needs to be more active efforts to develop programs to support the adjustment of students with disabilities to school life and to promote improved friendship between students with and without disabilities as well as to research the implementation of such programs.
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