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Hegel政治哲學에에 있어서의 疏外槪念

Hegel政治哲學에에 있어서의 疏外槪念
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Alienation concept in Hegel's political philosophy
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대학원 정치외교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
It is widely-known that the core of Marxism ana Existentialism, two mainstreams of contemporary philosophical thoughts, is concerned with the "alienation" concept. In this context, the concept of alienation was originally established by G.W.F.Hegel to harmonize and unify individuality and universality, which have been the major subjects of all the political Philosophers from the ancient Athens. Marxists and Existentialists, who had raised their thoughts from criticizing Hegelianism, however, began to analize the concepts of individuality and universality in the different directions from Hegel, trying to newly interpretate the relationship beteen them. In this regard, this thesis aimed at clarifying the concept of alien to get help in understanding the currently-increasing alienation consciousness among contemporarians, primarily attributable to their maladjustments to the daily-changing society and material civilization. For the purpose, this thesis looks over the ways of dealing with the issue of harmonizing and unifying individuality and universality by philosophers in the Pre-Hegel period, and their analizes hegel's concepts on individuality, universality and alienation. The issue of harmonizing and unifying individuality(speciality) and universality has been the major subjects of thoughts since the times of Plato ana Aristotle, when the idealistic political order, under which an individual's private status was not in disacord with his civil status(Citizenship), began to collapse. With the breaking down of the ideal state in which a man could be a true human being only after he identified his citizenship, philosophers began to abstract and theorize the state in the past all the more, in their memories. Thus Plato and Aristotle eagered to harmonize and unify individuality and universality. In them, however, the "harmonization and unification" no more than a universal order in which all specialities are absorbed. In other words, the order calls on obliteration of all specialities. For example, sage politics which was counted as idealistic by Plato in "Republic" is no more than a wholesome dictatorship by a sage who is endowed with the ability to sense the universal truth. Under the sage politics could be easily disregarded when he turned out to be unable to recognize the universal truth. Into the middle age, the christianity began to call for every individual to contact privately with all-mighty god for his salvation, opening the way to individualism. The sprout for individualism, however, didn't grow into the actual world, only remaining in the abstract dimension, since the idealistic divine world was kept An everyone's mind under the catholicism, curving the liberal development of personality. In this respect, the catholicism could be said to be the thought aimed at establishing universal world by sacrificing individuals. However, the drastic changes in politics, economy and social affairs in the modern civil society following the renaissance and reformation have begun to drive each individual to his own private world. Responding to such social circumstance, new political philosophers came to take up individuality as their major subjects of thoughts. G.J.Rousseau suggested the concept of general will to combine individuality and universality. But Rousseau could not overcome the dilemma between total will and general will which is no more than common will of all the citizens, as Hegel pointed out later. I. Kant argued that individual experiences could enter into human consciousness only by the existence of the unchanging form in human's understanding ability, and criticized experimentalism's standing that all the knowledges could be obtained only through individual experiences, which he thought as untrue. Kant tried to combine individuality and unversality, but stopped unsucessfully, leaving the question on thing itself. With a view to overcoming such limitations of Rousseau and Kant in sublating conflicts between individuality and universality, Hegel suggested the concept of 'alienation. In his magnum opus, "Phenomenology of Mind," Hegel analizes recognizing proceedings along which he argues an individual develops his intelligence from the primitive individually-experimenting stage to the highest stage or reason. He showed such recognizing proceedings could be combined with history through the intermediation of labor to finally reach the wholesome, absolute knowledge. Hegel here established a concept of the "State" as a unification of speciality and universality to sublate the alienation, analizing that the alienation is brought about from the confrontations and conflicts of speciality and universality in a society. Thus Hegel managed to solve, if temporary, the dilemma between individuality and universality. However, in post-Hegel period, marxists and existentialists again take up the subjects involving individuality and universality, criticizing hegelian concept of alienation. In this regard, this thesis tried to clarify the concepts of alienation, mainly in the hegelian system, in a movo to understand the recently-increasing alienation consciousnesses among contemporarians, primarily attributable to their maladjustments in highly-mechanized society.;(이전원문누락) <도표1> ◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) <도표2> 以上의 全體的 構造下에서 우리가 이제 Ⅲ章에서 論議할 정신현상학에 있어서의 勞動을 媒介로한 □外구조 역시 도식화 할 수 있을 것이다. ◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요)
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