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蘇東坡의 詠梅詩 硏究

蘇東坡의 詠梅詩 硏究
Other Titles
(The) Study on Su, Shi's Cherry(Japanese Apricot) Blossom Poetry
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대학원 중어중문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
蘇軾의 전체 詩篇 중 詠梅詩가 차지하는 분량은 그리 크지 않다. 그럼에도 불구하고 매화는 蘇軾이 자신의 인격을 투영한 대상이였기 때문에 그의 詠梅詩는 그의 文學과 人生을 이해하고 파악하는데 중요한 역할을 하고 있다. 따라서 本稿는 蘇軾의 詠梅詩를 분석하여 蘇軾이 매화를 매개체로 하여 표현하고자 했던 意境을 살펴보고 이를 통해 蘇軾에 대한 이해를 심화시키고자 하는 목적하에 쓰여졌다. 연구의 결론을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 蘇軾은 복잡한 인생 경력과 정치적 遭遇를 겪으면서 사상과 문학관에 있어서 크게 세차례의 변화 과정을 거친다. 둘째, 詠梅詩의 창작은 宋代 人文主義的 時代思潮의 勃興과 맥을 같이 한다. 詩는 詩人의 人品을 반영한다는 古代 中國의 문학관에 근거하면, 梅花는 바로 宋人의 보면적인 精神 品格을 象徵하는 典型이며, 후에는 高潔하고 志操있는 民族의 상징으로 變換되였다. 蘇軾은 정치적 失意 중에, 특히 梅花의 추위에 굴복하지 않는 강인함과 뭇 꽃들과 봄을 다투지 않는 고결한 품성에 주목하고 감정상 共鳴하여 詠梅詩를 짓게 되었다. 세째, 詠梅詩의 創作 時期는 蘇軾의 일생의 전환점이 된 「烏臺詩案」을 시발점으로 하여 黃州時期, 二次沆州時期, 嶺南時期로 나누어진다. 黃州 時期에 蘇軾은 매화를 知己이자 자신의 表象으로 삼아 이를 통해 위로받고 자신의 심경을 토로하였다. 二次 抗州 時期에는 매화를 仙人과 같은 意象을 지닌 것으로 파악하고 이를 통해 자신의 인격을 구현하고 仙界에의 憧憬을 표현하였다. 嶺南 時期의 詠梅詩에서는 落梅를 통하여 晩年의 蘇軾의 處境과 心靈의 高揚을 表出하였다. 네째, 蘇軾 詠梅詩의 形式은 章法과 句法·用字와 用典 면에서 모두 蘇軾의 '以論爲詩'의 성향이 반영되어 다른 작가의 詠物詩와는 구분되는 다른 특징을 지닌다. 또한 詠梅詩의 형식은 중국 詠物詩의 표현범위와 기교를 확대시켰다는 의의를 지닌다. 蘇軾의 詠梅詩에 있어서 梅花는 物我合一의 對象이라고 할 수 있을 것이고 이 對象을 통하여 나타난 작품, 즉 詠梅詩는 그대로 蘇軾의 人格의 表象이라고 할 수 있다.;Su, Shi (蘇 軾) is one of the greatest poets in Chinese history in sense that most of his poems show the delicate and exquisite feeling in our minds. He is well known not only in the volume of around 3,000 poems but also in the qualitative contents of those poems. Even though his cherry blossom poetry takes only around 1% of his poems, it may give the unique picture of his life and philosophy in the relation of social, political and cultural environment of Song (宋) dynasty. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change in the symbolic meanings of his cherry blossom poetry throughout his life as follows: Chapter 1 : Introduction. This chapter analyzes the importance and weight of cherry blossom poetry in his life. These poems can be categorized with three parts according to the main events of his life. Chapter 2 : The background of cherry blossom poetry. In Song dynasty, people believed the poems represent the characteristics of a poet. In this light, the poems show the life of Su, Shi to be honest, gentle but upright. Su, Shi experienced numerous political persecutions and these events motivated him to describe his ideas with more delicate and heartfelt contents of symbolic meanings in his poems. Chapter 3 : The meanings of cherry blossom poetry. This chapter starts the origin of cherry blossom poetry in China. Historical characteristics of cherry blossom poetry had changed their meanings as well as the structural expression with the change of dynasties. Poems in Tang (唐) dynasty had a more luxurious expression on beauty. From the end of Tang dynasty throughout Song dynasty, lots of scholars had tried to retire from the world and to live with upright integrity. This trend brought out the diverse poems on cherry blossom because of its seclusive blossom of white color against cold winter. Cherry blossom poems of Su, Shi start from the important moment of Wutaishian (烏臺詩案) in his life and show significant changes along the trend of three categorical stages. The poems in the first stage of Huangzhou (黃州) period describe the recovery of friendship and the perfection of his life style in cherry blossom. The poems in the second stage through the second moving in Hangzhou (杭州) describe the perfection of self-esteem and adoration of Taoism (道敎) toward the oriental angel society. The poems in the third stage of Lingnan (嶺南) describe the long cherished philosophy in the mind of old age. In his cherry blossom poetry, cherry blossom represents the unification of minds between a human and nature. He tried to describe the cherry blossom for the symbolic expression about his deep consideration on the human and his characteristic on the philosophy. Here, we analyzed the poems by the symbolic meanings such as a man of virtue, the beauty, an oriental angel, a scholar of integrity, and a hermit. All these meanings represented by cherry blossom came from his integrity seperated from the main stream of political turmoil and the heartfelt love on people. Chapter 4 : Format of cherry blossom poetry. This chapter analyzes the usage of words, format of poems, origins of reused idioms, and other related backgrounds of events in poems. These are specially important in Chinese literature because they give diverse meaning in short sentence as well as the harmonic rhythms in poems. In this chapter, Su, Shi's efforts to renovate the stale formats of poems will be analyzed in more detail. Chapter 5 : Conclusion. Su, Shi had been persecuted throughout most of his life but his philosophy and characteristic had become more and more gentle and upright with heartfelt feelings on the world and the human. Even if the poems on cherry blossom take charge of around 40 in quantity with small portion of his total poems of around 3,000, his expression on the symbolic meaning of the cherry blossom made the unification of a human with nature and it gave him the credit as one of the greatest poets in Chinese history.
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