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日本의 對中共外交政策

日本의 對中共外交政策
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Japan's foreign policy toward communist China
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대학원 정치외교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
日本의 對外政策中에서 韓國의 安保와 直結되어 있는 것은 무엇보다 日·中共關係의 展望이라고 할 수 있다. 韓國은 民主主義이며 自由友方의 經濟大國인 日本과 共産主義政權이며 成長되는 軍事力을 갖는 中共, 兩大國 사이에 위치하고 있다. 또한 戰後時代를 거의 淸算한 美·日關係는 곧 아시아 特히 極東에서의 새로운 國際政治 秩序를 形成하고 더우기 昨今 1972年 9月29日 日·中共國交正常化라는 國際政治의 새로운 局面이 展開되었다. 이러한 兩國關係는 韓國에 직접적으로 그 영향이 미치며 아시아에서 韓國의 生存과 利益에 重要한 要因이 되어왔다. 日本은 1952年부터 1972年까지 과거 20年동안 「政經分離」政策에 근거해서, 대만과 中共에 각각 公式 非公式의 國交關係를 맺고 있었다. 「政經分離」란, 어떠한 직접적인 公式的 政治的 接觸없이 經濟的 關係를 수행하는 것을 의미한다. 이점에서 日本은 과거 中共과의 關係에서 政府間의 外交的 或은 어떠한 直接的 接觸없이 中共과의 貿易을 수행해 왔다. 反面, 日本은 대만과 外交的 關係 및 貿易關係를 동시에 수행해 왔다. 日·中共國交正常化로 因해서 日本은 現在 日·대만 外交關係를 단절하고 北京과 外交關係를 수립하는 반면, 대만과는 다만 經濟 및 貿易關係를 유지할 수 있는 政經分離原則을 再適用하고 있다. 이 점은 바로 南·北으로 분단된 韓半島에도 適用되는 것으로 韓國政府는 다만 日本의 北韓과의 等距離外交政策을 반대하고, 오직 南韓과의 外交 및 貿易關係만을 유지할 것을 주장하고 있다. 그러나 어쨌던 日本은 北韓에 對해 政經分離政策에 입각해서 外交的 關係없는 質易關係를 유지할 것이다. 그럼으로, 日本의 對中共政策은 새로운 意味의 政經分離原則에 입각해서 대만, 東南亞地域, 그리고 韓國에 適用될 것임으로 이러한 시점에서, 韓國은 自國의 自主的 外交政策의 方向을 새롭게 모색할 수 있는 계기를 맞은 것이다.;Japan's foreign relations with the People's Repblic of China have been one of the most important and controversial issues since Japan regained her indepencence in 1952. Georgraphical proximaty, historical ties that Japan has had with China, and China being a Major power with nuclear capability made it vittally important for Japan to keep a pipeline open with her, and the policy or separating economic from politics allowed trade relations with her. In this theses I am chiefly interested in finding out why it was of utmost importance for Japan to adopt this principle of foreign policy toward Communist Chian. In the first section, the international situation and historical circumstance which eventually led Japan tv adop this policy will be explored In the second section I should like to analyze how the actual negotiations on trade are used by both the Chinese leaders and the pro-pekingleaders in Japan as a means of changing Japan's policy toward China. In the third section the internal polfitical impact in Japan is to be discussed. Finally, I should like to see how was the Sino-Japanese repprochement actually achieved? And what has happened since the Chou-Tanaka joint statement of 29 September 1972? The chief cause of adopting and pusuing the policy of seperating economics from politics stemmed from international circumstance in which Japan found herself as a defeated nation after the Second World War. It was the nature of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, timing of the signing, the attitude of Communist China and Japan's particular relation to the United States that made Japan recognize Nationalist Jhiana. Since neither Nationaist China nor Communist China would permit diplomatic ties with any country that recognized the other, it was not possible for Japan to recognize both regimes. Therefore, Japan maintained only economic relations with Communist China without any direct political contact. Sino-Japanese trade relations were based on the reality of both Communist China and Japan. From Japan's point of view it was a realistic approach ao maximize economic opportunities and minimize political involment until the right opportunity came for normalization. By adopting and practieing policy of separating economics from politics, Japan, looked for larger commercial opportunities in the future and it also served as a pipeline between two big countries in Asia. From China's viewpoint, it was an "accumulat've" approach for the eventual normalization with Japan. Trade was used as an instrument of political pressure and it reflected China's political a'ms. The volume of trade fluctated and the technioues Chian used varied according to the political objectives. China appealed to a "boad political spectrum" in Japan through private agrements and exchange of unoffical private delegations. China treatened Japan with suspension of trade, and manipulated her with "frienly trade' and "memorandum trade". Since the agreement for the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations was signed on September 29, 1972. The issue of "separating economics from politic" has become a stroy of the past. The admission of Communist China tothe United Nations in 1971, Nixon's visit to China in February, 1972, and the eventual change of the policy or the United Nations gave Japan an opportunity to change her policy and rechgnize the People's Repulic of China. A full rappochement with china may, however, be achieved if Sino-American relations continue to improve and if Sino-Soviet disputes continue to outweight China's strategic interests in Taiwan. With the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations, Korea must seek for her rule by pursuing "independent and posotive" action.
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