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1930年代 日本과 歐美列强間의 外交關係가 中ㆍ日戰爭에 미친 影響에 關하여

Title
1930年代 日本과 歐美列强間의 外交關係가 中ㆍ日戰爭에 미친 影響에 關하여
Other Titles
On the influence on the Sino-Japanese war, of Japan's relations with the western powers in the 1930s
Authors
陳亨珠
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 정치외교학과
Keywords
1930년대일본구미열강외교관계중일전쟁
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 論文은 1930年代 일본이 만주사변, 中·日戰爭으로 膨脹政策을 추구할 때, 汎世界的인 차원에서의 國際關係가 아시아에 어떻게 투영되며, 그 결과 일본의 정책을 어떻게 촉진, 억제했는가를 보려는데 목적이 있다. 1929 年부터 시작된 經濟恐慌은 서방국가들을 自國문제해결에 고심하게 하여, 對極東政策의 不在상태를 야기시키는 한편, 日本에게는 經濟的 어려움을 가중시켜 '평화외교'에 불만을 품고 있던 日군부에게 1922年이후 극동의 세력균형을 유지시켜 주었던 워싱턴조약을 파기하게금 유도하였다. 그 결과로 발생하게 된 세력공백상태에서 일본은 만주에서 무력으로 경제적 난관을 타개하려고 시도하였으며, 地政學 (Geopolitics)에 근간을 둔 "大東亞圈"을 확립시키려는 노력을 시작하였다. 中·日戰爭이 시작되기 전까지, 극동에 이해관계를 가지고 있던 英國은 單事的 脆弱性을 원인으로, 美國은 고립주의세력의 확대로, 소련은 국내경제발전과 숙청을 원인으로, 독일은 현상타파라는 공통된 목적下에 일본과 협력하기를 희망하였으므로, 일본은 무력팽창정책을 지속시킬 수 있었을 뿐만 아니라, 세계가 지역주의(Regionalism)로 나아가고 있다는 확신을 더욱 굳건히 하게 되었다. 中·日사이의 全面戰인 中·日戰爭은 이러한 배경下에서 발생한 것이며, 그 전개과정도 구미열강과 일본의 관계 변화에 의해 상당한 영향을 받았다. 특히 美·日간의 관계에서 상대국의 전략에 대한 誤判은 中·日 戰爭을 세계전쟁中 하나의 국지전으로 성격을 변모시키는데 가장 중요한 요인이 되었다. 즉 30年代 초 만주사변으로 시작된 일본의 膨脹政策은 구미열강의 對극동정책이 취약하고 일관성이 없는 틈을 타 더욱 확산되었으며, 일본은 이 시기를 자급자족체계를 확립할 수 있는 好機로 여겨 중일전쟁을 발생시켰고, 태평양전쟁으로까지 확대시켰던 것이다.;The purpose of this thesis is to study the influence of international relations at the worldwide level on the Sino-Japanese War, a major event in the Far East, and its further impact on Japanese foreign policy which was to move in the directions of expansionism through the Manchurian Incident and the Sino-Japanese War in the 1930s. The Great Depression, beginning in the year of 1929, limited the attention of the major western contries to solving their own dtmestic problems and this resulted in their decreasing interest in the Far Eastern region. Japan was also under severe economic difficulties. These factors led to the creation of a sort of a vacuum of political power in the area and made more vulnerable the situation which had been maintained by the Washington treaties in the early 1920s. Jepan, in particular, advantage of this situation, tried to find away out of the economic difficulties by using its armed forces in Manchuria, tried to create the basis for the so-called 'Pan- Asianism'. Meanwhile, Britain, having had the greatest interests among other western powers in the Far Eastern area be fore the Sino-Japanese War, concerned with the rise of the Nalzi Germany and inclined to compromise with Japan's demands in the Far East at the cost of China. The influence of isolationism which had spread since the boycott to the League of Nations, was still strong in American politics. The stalin's U.S.S.R. was also occupied with the development of its economy and maintained its regime by a series cf purges. Germzny, a new factor in Far Esstern political scene in the 1930s, tried to reassert itself. It tried to regainits lost interest in the area since the defeat in World War I, and at the same time to cooperation with Japan for the common object to break down the status quo of world politics which were maintained by the leading western democracies. Trerefore, the tendency of decreasing interest by the western powers, and the cooperation of Germany made Japan to firmly believe that its objectives in the region could be achieved by military means with out inviting western interferences. A total war between China and Japan broke out under thosecircum stances. Naturally, its progress was influenced by the attitudes of the western powers. The United States, however, began to view Japan's expansionism not as an isolated action, but as aconcerted one with Germany in the west end the east. Moreover->the mutual misjudgement of the strategies between the U.S. and Japan was one of the mos timportant factors which made the war alocalized one among worldwide War. In conclusion, the weak policies at the Far Eastern region of the Western powers and the lack of the irconsistency encoxraged Japanese Expansionism, begining from the Manchurian Incidentin the early 1930s, which ultimately led to the destruction of Japan itself.
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