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栗谷 李珥의 政治思想 性向分析

Title
栗谷 李珥의 政治思想 性向分析
Other Titles
(An) Analytical Study of the Inclinations in the Political Thought of Yulgok Lee
Authors
全正姬
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
대학원 정치외교학과
Keywords
율곡 이이정치사상성향분석정치외교
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 論文은 栗谷 李珥의 政治思想의 性向을 分析한 硏究로서 粟谷이 朝鮮朝 朱子學과 近世實學에 있어서의 과도기적 思想家라는 측면에 착안하였다. 硏究의 目的은 栗谷思想에 대한 기존 분석·평가 결과를 재정리하여 기존 평가 자체를 검토·분석하는 데 있다. 특히 栗谷에 대한 기존의 평가-즉, 退溪와 雙璧을 이루는 性理學者 또는 近世實學의 先驅라고 하는-가 性理學이라거나 經世論의 단편적인 연구에 치우치고 있음에 대하여, 本 論文은 兩側面을 종합하여 栗谷의 基礎哲學의 기반위에서 政治思想을 考察하였다. 그리하여 栗谷의 政治思想과 哲學的 基礎와의 관계를 糾明하고, 朝鮮朝에 있어서의 栗谷의 思想史的 位置에 대한 기존의 評價를 검토하였다. 따라서 本 論文은 다음과 같이 구성되어 있다. 우선, 栗谷의 政治思想을 이해하기 위한 前提로서 그 당시의 思想的 狀況과, 그 時代의 狀況에 대한 栗谷의 認識은 어떠한 것이었나를 Ⅱ章에서 考察하고 있다. 여기에서는 첫째, 16世紀 中半의 思想的 狀況이 그 以前의 政治的 經驗으로부처 統治者의 修身을 강조하는 修己中心的 傾向으로 나아가고 있었다는 것과, 둘째, 이에 대해 栗谷은 연산군 이래의 積幣와 痼痰이 만연된 정치사회의 問題에 대한 해결책으로 修己의 方法이 적합하지 못하다는 것을 認知하고 方向을 달리하는 狀況打開策, 즉 更張論을 提示하고 있음을 발견하였다. Ⅲ章에서는 思想의 基礎로서 學文論과 哲學的 基礎를 考察하고 있다. 학문론에서 栗谷은 朱子學에서의 修己·治人 竝行論을 設定하면서도 治人에 대하여는 相對的 獨自性을 긍정하였다. 浩人이란 현실사회에 있어서의 具體的인 政治的 實賤을 意味하는데, 學文論에서의 이러한 傾向이 그의 哲學思想이나政治思想의 方向을 基礎지었다고 할 수 있다. 栗谷의 哲學的 基礎에서 特徵的인 것은 朱子學的인 理의 意味가 변화하고 있다는 것인데, 이에 따라 氣가 상대적으로 강조되었다. 氣란 보편적인 理의 개념에 대하여 個別的인 事物의 特性을 나타내는 것으로, 이와같은 氣에 대한 강조는 栗谷이 狀況主義에로 가고 있다는 것을 의미하는 것이었다. 또, 이와 같은 경향을 人性論과 결부시켜 보면, 人間과 外部世界와의 관계를 重視하는 思想的 傾向으로 나타나고 있었다. Ⅳ章은 政治思想의 特質에 대하여 살펴본 것인데, 栗谷의 政治思想의 特質은 王道政治論이라고 할 수 있다. 그에 있어서의 王度란 敎化와 養民이 모두 實現된 상태를 의미하였다. 그러면서도 栗谷은 養民의 수행에 1次的인 目標를 두고 있었는데 이것은 그의 政治思想의 基調를 이루는 政治的 課題였다. 이러한 政治的 指向은 다음과 같은 政治的 思考의 基本構造위에서 이루어졌다고 파악된다. 첫째, 養民論에 대한 理論的 基礎로서 變通이라는 狀況主義的 指向을 提示하였다. 둘째, 栗谷의 民觀은 孟子의 民本主義를 계승한 것으로 民에 있어서 經濟的 欲求의 充足이라는 측면이 重視되고 있으며, 정치란 궁극적으로 民을 위한 것이어야 한다고 하였다. 세째, 統治者에 대한 것으로서, 統治者의 修身보다는 통치기술이나 능력을 중요시하였다. 이러한 政治的 思考의 諸般 特質은 결국 栗谷에 있어서 制度改革論으로 귀착되었다. Ⅴ章에서는 연구의 결과를 밝히고 있는데, 栗谷의 哲學的 基礎와 정치사상과의 관계는 연관성을 가지고 있다는 것과, 栗谷의 思想史的 位置에 대한 기존의 평가가 타당하다는 것이 發見되었다. 結論的으로 栗谷은 그의 制度論과 人間에 대한 經驗的 認識이라는 側面에서 近世實學에 대한 그의 思想史的 價値를 발견할 수 있다고 평가된다.;This thesis is an analytical study of the inclinations in the political thought of Yulgok Lee. I pay attention to the fact that Yulgok is a man of thoughts in transitional period from Neo-Confucianism to modern practical learning during the Yi dynasty. The aim of this study is to rearrange the findings of the existing analytical evaluations and discuss and analyse the existing evaluations on their own. Especially the existing evaluations of Yulgok, who was a scholar of human nature and natural laws philosophy with the other great philosopher Toikai and a vanguard of modern practical learning, put emphasis upon the fragmental study of human nature and natural laws philosophy or the theory of statemanship. So this thesis combines both thinking and observes Yulgok's political thought based on his primary philosophy. So I specifiedt he relationship between the political thought and the primary philosophy of Yulgok, and also noted the existing evaluations on the position of the history of thoughts of Yulgok during the Yi dynasty. Accordingly, this thesis consists of the following : First, as a premise to understand Yulgok's political thought, chapter two explains what the ideologlcal conditions of that time and Yulgok's recognition of the conditions were. In this chapter, 1 find that, first, the ideological conditions were developed from the previous political experiences to the self-discipline-cent-erized tendency to emphasize the moral training of the rulers. Second, in contrast, as a solution to the then prevailing political and social problems with the deep-rooted evils and chronic diseases, since the time of Yonsan-kun, Yulgok recognized that self-discipline was not suitable and he suggested countermeasures to the prevailing situation, that is, reformism. In chapter three, the theory of learning and philosophical observations is indicated the basis of thought. In the theory of learning, Yulgok even admitted in principle the parallelism between self-discipline and governing-others, but he affirmed the relative independence of governing- others. Governing-others means concrete political practice In a real society. It maybe said that this tendency toward the theory of learning Indicates the direction of his philosophical and political thought. A characteristics of Yul-gok's basic philosophical thinking means that a change on the meaning of the principle of Neo-Confucianism is taking place. Accordingly Yulgok put emphasis upon the energy relatively. The energy against the concept of universal principle represented the property of individual things and for Yulgok to put emphasis upon the energy relatively means that he was seeking situationalism. When such a tendency is connected with human nature, the emphasis placed on the energy showed an ideological tendency to take a serious view of the relationship between human beings and the external world. In chapter four, the characteristics of, political thought are observed. So the characteristics of Yulgok's political thought can be a theory of royal politics. The theory of royal politics of Yulgok means that all realized achievement of cultivation and fostering-people. Nevertheless, Yulgok firstly aimed at the achievements of the fostering-people. This was a political task which formed the keynote of his political thought. I understand that the political direction of fostering people is formed on a basic structure of political thinking. Such thoughts areas follows. First, Yulgok represented the situationalismic direction as a versatility with the theoretical basis of the theory of fostering-people- Second, Yulgok's point of view on people succeeded to people-centered thought of Maeng Ja. Yulgok took a serious view on and sided with the satisfaction of economic need of people, and he said that politics is, in the end, for the people. Third, regarding the rulers, he took a more serious view on governing skills and ability, than on the ruler's moral training. Such characteristics finally came into Yulgok's systematic reformism. In chapter five, the conclusion of this study is clarified. The relationship between Yulgok's philosophical basis and political thought were associated with each other, and it is find that the existing evaluations of the position of the history of thoughts Is right. In conclusion, Yulgok can be regarded as a man of thoughts in transitional period from Neo-Confucianism In Yi dynasty to modern practical learning. Particulary, his systematic theory not only influenced upon the initiation of modern practical learning, but also opened a way of reilluminatory the theory of human beings which is based on an empirical recognition of hu-man beings from different point of Neo-Confucianism. From these points, we may evaluate the systematic theory in which the historical value of his thoughts can be discovered.
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