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敦煌本 <계포매진사문> 硏究

Title
敦煌本 <계포매진사문> 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON DUN HUANG BEN(敦煌本)
Authors
李靜和
Issue Date
1995
Department/Major
대학원 중어중문학과
Keywords
돈황본계포마진사문DUN HUANG BEN
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本稿에서는 唐代에 성행한 通俗 敍事物인 <季布罵陣詞文>을 연구 대상으로 선정하여 詞文을 비롯한 敦煌 講唱文學의 '演行性'을 밝히고자 시도하였다. 韻文 爲主의 說唱體로 이루어진 詞文은 본질적으로 다른 갈래에 대해 개방성과 확장성을 지니고 있는 '混合的 갈래'로서,後代에 講唱系列 뿐만 아니라 小說이나 戱曲의 발전에도 커다란 영향을 미친다. 사문의 혼합 갈래적 특성은 오랫동안 民間에 口頭로 전해 내려오고, 또한 '唐代'와의 생생한 접촉을 통해 다양한 계층의 문학적 요구를 받아들인 데서 가능했던 것으로 보인다. 따라서 詞文을 비롯한 敦煌 講唱文學은 詩文 中心이던 唐 以前의 文學形式을 여러 방면으로 운용하여 以後에 小說이나 戱曲을 발전시킨 過渡的 文學形態라고 할 수 있다. 이에 本稿에서는 <季布罵陣詞文>의 口演 特性에 주목하여 다음의 몇 가지 사실을 밝히고자 하였다. 第2章에서는 詞文의 形成 過程에 관해 중국 학자들의 일반적인 견해--民間 敍事詩의 傳統에서 유래--를 따르지 않고, 中國의 民間文學과 外來의 佛經文學이 결합된 '文學 形式의 混合體'로 간주하여 살펴보았다. 즉 唐代에 佛敎의 영향으로 敍事性이 강한 이야기들이 俗講 形式을 빌어 口演되는 過程에 民間에서 전해 내려오던 詩歌形式이나 唱辭, 說唱體 등이 자연스럽게 결합되면서 '詞文'이란 새로운 양식을 발생시킨 것이다. 第3章에서는 民間에서 오랫동안 口演되는 過程에서 <季布罵陣詞文>은 과연 어떤 주제 의식을 담아내고자 하였는지를 살펴보았다. 唐代라는 현실과의 접촉 속에서 당시 서민들의 비판 정신과 시대의식을 반영하고 있는 <季布罵陣詞文>은 《史記》의 <季布·欒布列傳>과는 전혀 다른 사건의 전개나 갈등의 해결 방식, 인물 성격 등을 보여주고 있다. 第4章에서는 <季布罵陣詞文>을 중심으로 口演 特性을 밝히고자 하였다. 반복되는 이야기를 요약해 전달하지 않고 직적 화법으로 생동감 있게 표현하고 있는 점이나 어떤 상황에 대해 어떤 방식으로 표현하는 慣用的 表現句의 잦은 활용, 說唱者의 論評的 陳述, 그리고 단일한 목소리를 지양하고 視點의 다양한 變化를 통해 多聲性을 추구하는 경향 등은 모두 口演 過程에서 형성된 '口述性'의 일면들이다. 이상으로 살펴본 바 敦煌 講唱文學은 지금껏 연구해 온 것보다 훨씬 그 중요성을 인정받아야 한다. 唐代의 다른 갈래, 즉 傳奇나 歌舞戱, 參軍戱 등과의 관련성은 물론 宋 話本이나 白話小說, 諸宮調 등과의 연관성, 그리고 陶眞, 涯詞, 寶卷, 彈詞, 鼓詞 등 講唱系列과의 연관성을 밝혀주는 가운데 중국 문학사의 거시적인 한 흐름--通俗文學--의 줄기를 이해할 수 있을 것이다. 또한 敦煌 講唱文學에서 비롯된 口演 傳統은 바로 宋代 話本, 平話 등의 白話小說이나 鼓子詞, 諸宮調 등의 戱曲 發展에 많은 영향을 주었으며, 중국의 通俗文學이 독특한 형식을 이루는데 기반을 마련해 주었다고 할 수 있다.;In this study I attempt to elucidate the concepts of Public Performance(演行性) of Ci Wen(詞文) and Dun Huang Jiang Chang Wen Xue(敦煌 講唱文學) through an examination of which was a popular descriptive literary work in Tang(唐) Dynasty. Ci Wen(詞文), written in Shuo Chang Ti(說唱體) mainly composed in verse, is a 'Mixed-genre' which has a characteristic that is easily extended and opened to others, so that it can have great effects not only on the development of 'The Series of Jiang Chang(講唱)' but also on the development of fictions and plays through later periods. Ci Wen(詞文)'s characteristic of Mixed-genre could be brought into existence through the long literary tradition handed down from mouth to mouth in a civil society. And through the process the various literary needs of different classes were infused into this genre, of which the style was positively accepted by public, especially during the Tang(唐) period. Therefore it can be said that Dun Huang Jiang Chang Wen Xue(敦煌 講唱文學), including Ci Wen(詞文), was a literary style of transition period, in which the writers made use of pre-Tang(唐) tendency concentrated on poetry in various directions. Those attempts influenced on the rising of fictions and plays in later periods. In this thesis, paying attentions to the peculiar characteristic of 'the oral narration', I explain some matters as following. In Chapter 2, as to the formative process of Ci Wen(詞文), I don't assent to the general opinion of Chinese scholars that Ci Wen(詞文) originated from the traditions of popular descriptive poetry. Instead I analyze it as a mixture of several literary styles, especially the combination of buddist literature and popular literature. The style of Ci Wen(詞文) was firstly derived from the course of public performance of the descriptive story, the tradition of which had been influenced by Tang-buddism, and the popular poetry, Chang Ci(唱辭) and Shuo Chang Ti(說唱體) were naturally combined with the public performance by the style of popular narration(俗講形式). In that course, Ci Wen(詞文), which had a new style, was naturally developed. In Chapter 3, I investigate the main consciousness which was shaped in the long history of popular oral narration. As being contacted with the vivid social conditions of Tang(唐) Dynasty, , which was a mirror of the critical consciousness of the public in that era, was quite different from in in many aspects such as the development of plots, the solution of troubles, the personalities of characters, and so forth. In Chapter 4, I try to explain the peculiarity of oral narration centered around . In this Chapter, I regard the following features as the respects of the peculiarity of oral narration--the vivid direct speech insteads of condensed expression, the repeated formula expression(慣習的 陳述), the commentary narration(論評的 陳述), and the substitutionary narration(代理的 陳述). As the result of above examination, I come to a conclusion that Dun Huang Jiang Chang Wen Xue(敦煌 講唱文學) should be justly evaluated for its importance. The oral narrative tradition started with 'The Series of Dun Huang Jiang Chang(敦煌講唱)' had an important influence on the developement of 'The Colloquial Style Novels(白話小說)' and 'Plays(戱曲)' in later periods. In this sense, it can be said that Dun Huang Jiang Chang Wen Xue(敦煌 講唱文學) laid the foundation on the peculiar formation of the Chinese popular literature. We should study it in the relation of other contemporary genres such as Zhuan Qi(傳奇), Ge Wu Xi(歌舞戱), Can Jun Xi(參軍戱), ect. Moreover it can be studied in the relations of later works such as Hua Ben(話本), The Colloquial Style Novels(白話小說) and Zhu Gong Diao(諸宮調) in Song Dynasty and also can be studied in the relations of later 'The Series of Jiang Chang(講唱)' such as Tao Zhen(陶眞), Ya Ci(涯詞), Bao Juan(寶卷), Tan Ci(彈詞), and Gu Ci(鼓詞). In this studies, I dare argue that a grand stream of Chinese literary tradition of 'Popular Literature' can be revealed in these analyses.
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