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韓ㆍ日 國交正常化 成立에 關한 硏究

Title
韓ㆍ日 國交正常化 成立에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Normalization of Relations between Korea and Japan : Focusing on the Major Contributing Factors to the Korean Rapprochement with Japan
Authors
金良淑
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
대학원 정치외교학과
Keywords
한국일본국교정상화추진요인
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 論文은 1965年 韓日國交正常化의 成立過程과 成立要因을 分析하는데 目的이 있다. 구체적으로 本 論文은 韓日交涉過程(1951年~1965年)을 통하여 韓國이 언제, 어떠한 要因들에 의하여 日本과의 國交正常化를 적극적으로 推進·成立시키게 되며, 이러한 要因들의 分析을 통해 볼 때 韓國이 어느 정도 獨自的으로 國交正常化를 추구했으며, 한편 美國이나 日本의 利害는 이에 어떠한 役割을 하고 있는지등을 考察하려는 것이다. 韓日交涉의 全過程을 통해 韓國民들의 非好意的인 對日感情은 지속되지만, 交涉에 임하는 韓國政府의 態度는 政權이 交替되면서 점차 積極性을 띠어갔다. 특히 5.16以後에 韓日交涉을 급속히 진전되어 결국 1965年末 兩國의 國交가 正常化되었다. 이러한 國交正常化는 國際構造로부터의 影響, 國內支配勢力의 利害, 그리고 國內社會經濟的 性格들간의 연관에 의해 成立된 것이었다. 韓日交涉過程에 作用하고 있는 推進要因들을 政權的 次元, 國內經濟的 次元, 對外的 次元에서 구체적으로 살펴 본 결과, 1965年의 韓日 國交正常化는 朴正熙政權의 好意的인 對日觀 및 政權의 政治·經濟的 利害가 작용함으로써 韓國이 먼저 積極的인 對日交涉態度를 보인 것에 크게 영향받았음을 알 수 있었다. 또한 악화일로의 經濟狀況에서 經濟開發計劃을 수행해야 했던 급박한 상황으로 인해 韓國政府는 조속히 韓日會談을 타결하여 請求權資金 導入 및 日本과의 經濟協力을 추진할 필요를 느끼게 되었다. 한편, 日本 역시 1960年代들어 高度成長에 따론 구조적 불황으로 韓國市場으로의 진출을 도모하게 됨으로써, 韓日兩國은 相互經濟協力 必要性으로 交涉에 상당한 진전을 볼 수 있었다. 그런데, 兩國의 相互經濟的 必要性의 程度差異는 日本이 유리한 위치에서 소극적인 交涉態度를 취하고 韓國이 불리한 위치에서 적극적인 態度로 交涉에 임하게 딘 주원인이 되었다. 韓國이 日本과의 國交正常化를 추진하게 된 또 하나의 주요 動因은 美國의 東北亞戰略에 따른 對韓壓力으로서, 美國은 戰略的·經濟的인 利害에 의해 韓日兩國의 화해를 희망하였다. 그러나 1965年 韓國의 對日國交正常化는 美東北亞戰略에 따라 '美國이 시키기 때문에' 推進·成立되었다기 보다는 朴正熙政權의 호의적인 對日觀 및 政權의 利害에 의해 執權初期부터 自發的·主導的으로 추진된 것이고 더불어 美國의 利害에 "부합되어 가속화될 수 있었던 것으로 볼 수 있다. 結論的으로 1965年의 韓日國交正常化는 韓國·美國·日本등 관련3國의 利害가 복합적으로 작용하여 成立되었던 것이지만, 最終的으로 가장 積極的인 움직임을 보임으로써 國交正常化를 가능하게 했던 것은 바로 韓國의 朴政權이었고, 이러한 적극적인 態度는 外部的 要因에 의해서라기보다는 政權內部的, 國內經濟的 要因으로부터 더 큰 영향을 받았던 것으로 파악된다.;This thesis aims at analyzing the process and contributing factors of the normalization of relations between Korea and Japan in 1965. Concretely, this study examines when and by what factors Korea took up a positive attitude to the negotiation with Japan and to what degree Korea voluntarily pursued the Normalization and what the interests and the roles of America and Japan in the Normalization were. Korean government's attitude toward Japan became more and more positive with time passing. Especially, park regime rose after the 5.16 showed a great positiveness in dealing with the Normalization while the general public remained unfriendly attitude. The contributing factors to Korean normalization of relations with Japan can be explained as political factors, economic factors and external factors. First of all, the conclusion of the Korea-Japan Treaty in 1965 was due to Park regime's great positiveness in dealing with the early Normalization. Park regime's great positiveness was influenced by their close friendship with Japan which mainly originated from the President Park's career of the past. And the regime's political and economic interests-accomplishment of political tasks and political funds of the regime also influenced the Normalization with Japan. Another factor bringing an early conclusion to the negotiations between the two countries was the mutual economic needs. Park regime had to carry out the 5 year economic plan which was related to the legitimation of the regime under the growing worse economic situation. Because the U.S. aid to Korea had already been cutting down sharply since the last phase of the 1950's, the Korean government felt dire need of foreign capital for accomplishing the goals of the first 5 year plan. In the mean time, Japan also began to seek to make inroads into Korean market because of economic depression since 1960's. However, in the aspect of the degree of economic interests, Japan's need for Korea economically was not so much great or urgent as Korea's need was. So the Normalization was unfavorably decided to Korea. A final important factor working toward the Korea-Japan Rappcochment was the pressure applied by the United States. The U.S. desired the Normalization both for strategic and economic reasons. Although the U.S. made a great influence on the long process of the negotiation between Korea and Japan, how- ever, it was the Park regime's determination that led to the Treaty in the end. In conclusion, the Normalization Treaty between Korea and Japan could be concluded by convergence of the interests of Korea, Japan and the U.S., but it was the Park regime of Korea that took up the most positive attitude in the end. And this positive action was more influenced by the inner-regime factor and domestic economic factor than by external factor as the U.S. pressure.
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