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《救風塵 硏究》

Title
《救風塵 硏究》
Other Titles
(A) Study of a "Jiu-Feng-Chen 《救風塵》"
Authors
車泫定
Issue Date
1995
Department/Major
대학원 중어중문학과
Keywords
구풍진Jiu-Feng-Chen중국희곡
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
關漢卿은 元代의 代表的인 劇作家로서 總 60 여 편의 雜劇을 썼으며 現存하는 作品만 14편에 이르는 것으로 알려졌다. 그의 작품 중 悲劇으로는 《寶娥寃》, 喜劇으로는 《救風塵》이 代表作으로 꼽혀진다. 悲劇 《寶娥寃》 에 대해서는 이미 國內에서도 多數의 論文이 발표되었으나, 喜劇 《救風塵》에 대한 硏究는 거의 全無하다고 할 수 있다. 따라서 筆者는 《救風塵》의 內容과 藝術特徵을 分析하여 愛情劇·社會劇으로서의 文學的 成就度를 밝히고, 喜劇的 特性도 導出하려고 했다. 특히 女性學的 側面에서 《救風塵》 에 反映된 作家精神을 考察하였다. 關漢卿의 生涯를 살펴본 바, 그가 '書會'活動을 통하여 專門的으로 雜劇을 創作하였으며 俳優·妓女 등과 함께 交遊함으로써 作品의 題材를 풍부히 할 수 있었음을 알 수 있었다. 關漢卿의 作品은 女性相을 통하여 婚姻制度, 奴婢制度, 官의 腐弊, 高利貸로 인한 一般 百姓들의 悲慘한 生活, 權力家나 官史들에게 蹂躪당하는 女性들의 苦痛, 娼妓制度의 弊害 등 社會의 諸問題들을 反映하였음을 고찰 할 수 있었다. 《救風塵》의 內容에서 妓女 趙昐兒가 '妙計'로써 악랄한 周舍로부터 宋引章을 구해내어 書生 安秀實과 결합하게 하는 過程을 살필 수 있었다. 人物의 性格은 對照的으로 描寫됨으로써 劇의 喜劇性을 倍加시켰음을 확인할 수 있었다. 곧 趙盼兒는 進取的인 性向이 강한 女性인 반면, 宋引章은 依存的이고 被動的인 性格을 지닌 人物로 浮刻되었으며 周舍는 身分과 經濟力을 이용해 女性을 마음대로 蹂躪하는 잔인한 性格의 所有者로, 安秀實은 자신의 問題도 해결하지 못하는 나약한 書生으로 묘사되었다. 특히 關漢卿은 身分上昇을 위해 商人 周舍와 결혼한 宋引章, 富와 權力을 背景으로 방탕한 生活을 하는 周舍와 같은 典型的인 人物을 그려냄으로써 元代 社會의 諸局面을 照明하였다. 《救風塵》은 「伏線」, 「서스펜스」 등의 技法으로 긴밀한 構成을 이루었음을 고찰 할 수 있었다. 특히 第4折에서 「마지막 긴장의 계기」를 조성함으로써 劇의 흐름을 긴박하게 이끌었다. 《救風塵》의 構造는 妓女·書生·商人의 愛情三角 關係의 原型인 <雙漸·蘇小卿>故事를 바탕으로 이루어졌음을 확인할 수 있었다. 宋引章·安秀實·周舍 3人의 三角關係를 통하여 士大夫 階層은 소외된 下層民으로 轉落한 반면, 商人 階層은 社會의 中心勢力으로 登場하여 社會構造가 變動되었음을 살필 수 있었다. 《救風塵》의 喜劇的 特性에서는 丑인 周舍의 自嘲的인 면을 極大化시켜 표현하고 「劇的 아이러니」를 적절히 사용함으로써 喜劇的 效果를 高潮시켰음을 고찰할 수 있었다. 특히 趙盼兒의 「妙計」는 喜劇으로 反轉될 수 있는 결정적인 요인으로 작용했으며 喜劇의 形式으로 妓女의 비참한 삶을 그려냄으로써 不合理한 社會制度를 覺醒시킬 수 있었다. 《救風塵》의 言語表現에서는 人物의 身分과 役割에 적합하도록 唱과 白이 적절히 運用되었고 각 人物 性格 또한 個性的으로 描寫되었음을 살필 수 있었다. 특히 俗語를 적절히 使用하여 直說的으로 比喩함으로써 妓女·商人 등 下層民의 生活相을 寫實的으로 그렸음을 옅볼 수 있었다. 끝으로 《救風塵》 에서는 他者·對象이기를 거부하고 自我·主體로 살고자 하는 趙盼兒와 依存的이고 被動的이며 他者·對象으로 安住해버린 宋引章이 對照的인 모습으로 표현되었음을 고찰할 수 있었다. 아울러 關漢卿은 他者이기를 거부하는 趙盼兒의 모습을 통하여 女性을 他者로 固定시키려는 男性中心의 社會를 批判하였음을 옅볼 수 있었다. 특히 그는 男性에 의해 억압당하는 女性의 現實과 蒙古族에 의해 억압당하는 漢族의 植民 狀況을 同一視하였고, 女性의 問題를 통하여 矛盾된 社會相을 認識시키려 했음을 살필 수 있었다. 그러므로 關漢卿은 리얼리즘을 具現한 作家라고 할 수 있다.;Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿)wrote total 60 pieces or so of Za-ju(雜劇) as a representative dramatist of Yuan-dai(元代), and it was known that the existing works amount to 14 pices. Out of his works, Dou-E-Yuan(竇娥寃) as a tragedy and Jin-Feng-Chen(救風塵) as a comedy are reckoned as the representative works. About the tragedy, Dou-E-Yuan(竇娥寃), many theses were already announced inland also. But, it can be said that study on the comedy, Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵) is almost wholly lacking. Thus, the author tried to clarify the literary achievement degree as the love drama, society drama and to deduce the comic feature, by analyzing the contents and the art feature of Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵). Especially, the author tried to study the author spirit reflected to Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵) in the female science side. According as I examined the lifetime of Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿), it could be seen that he created Za-ju(雜劇) professionally through 'Shu-hui(書會)' and that he could enrich the theme of works by keeping company with actors and Ji-nu¨(妓女). The author could study that the work of Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿) reflected all the problems of society such as marriage system, servant system, corruption of government, miserable life of general people which is caused by usury, pain of females to be trampled by power holders or government officials, and corruption of licensed prostitute system ect, through female image. In the contents of Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵), the author could examine the course that the Ji-nu¨(妓女), Zhao-Pan-Er(趙盼兒) makes Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章) combine with An-Xiu-Shi(安秀實) after rescuing Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章) from the knavish Zhou-She(周舍) with ingenious trick. It could be confirmed that the character of persons doubled the comic nature of drama by being described with contrast. That is, while Zhao-Pan-Er(趙盼兒) is the female that the progressive dispsition is strong, Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章) was embossed as the figure who has the dependent and passive character. And Zhou-She(周舍) was described as the owner of cruel character to trample down the female at his option by using his social position and economic power, and An-Xiu-Shi(安秀實) was describing as the effeminate Shu-sheng(書生) to fail to solve even his own problem. Especially, Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿) illuminated all the aspects of society of Yuan-dai(元代) by describing the typical figures such as Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章) who married a merchant, Zhou-She(周舍) for the social position rise and Zhou-She(周舍) who leads the dissipated life backed by wealth and power. The author could study that Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵) formed the close composition with the techniques such as preparation and suspense. Especially, in Di-si-zhe(第4折) it led the flow of drama tensely, by creating 'A Momentum for the Last Tension'. It could be confirmed that the stucture of Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵) was made on the basis of Gu-Shi(故事) which is the archetype of triangular love affair of Ji-nu¨(妓女), Shu-seng(書生), and merchant. Through the triangular love affair of 3 persons such as Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章), An-Xiu-Shi(安秀實) and Zhou-She(周舍), it could be examind that the society structure changed, as the merchant class appeared as the central power of society while the high official class fell to the alienated people of the lower classes. It could be studied that the comic feature of Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵) rose the comic effect by maximizing the self-contemptuous aspect of Zhou-She(周舍) who is Chou(丑) and using 'dramatic-irony' properly. Especially, the ingenious trick of Zhao-Pan-Er(趙盼兒) acted as the decisive factor to be able to be turned to comedy reversely and it could awaken the irrational social system by describing the miserable life of Ji-nu¨(妓女) with the form of comedy. It could be examined that singing and dialogue were used properly, so that they may be suitable for the social position and role of characters, and that each figure's character was described individually also, in the language expression of Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵). Especially, it could be inferred that the life form of the people of the lower classes such as Ji-nu¨(妓女) and merchants etc, was drawn realistically by allegorizing indicatively through the proper use of slanguage. In the end, it could be studied that Zhao-Pan-Er(趙盼兒) who refused to be other, object but who tries to live as self, subject and Song-Yin-Zhang(宋引章) who lived in peace as other, object to be dependant and passive were expressed with the contrastive form in Jiu-Feng-Chen(救風塵). In addition, it could be inferred that Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿) criticized the society centering around females to try to fix the female as the other through the form of Zhao-Pan-Er(趙盼兒) to refuse to be other. Especially, it could be examined that he identified the female actuality to be oppressed by males and the colony situation of the Han race(漢族) to be oppressed by the Mongolian race(蒙古族) and that he tried to make one recognize the discrepant society form through female problems. So, it can be said that Guan-Han-Qing(關漢卿) is an author who realized the realism.
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