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HIV/AIDS와 젠더 불평등(gender inequality)에 관한 연구
- HIV/AIDS와 젠더 불평등(gender inequality)에 관한 연구
- Other Titles
- HIV/AIDS and gender inequality in sub-Saharan Africa
- Issue Date
- 대학원 지역연구협동과정
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- The HIV/AIDS pandemic has taken its worst toll on the region of sub-Saharan Africa. While this region has only a little over 10% of the world?s population residing within its borders, it is home to almost two-thirds of the 39.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa alone.
HIV/AIDS is no longer striking primarily men. Today, more than 20 years into the epidemic, women account for nearly half the 40 million people living with HIV worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, 57 percent of adults with HIV are women, and young women aged 15 to 24 are more than three times as likely to be infected as young men. Despite this alarming trend, women know less than men about how HIV/AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent infection, and what little they do know is often rendered useless by the discrimination and violence they face.
This thesis explores why women are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While expert studies indicate that unsafe heterosexual sex is the primary mode of transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, one must delve into the underlying factors that contribute to this behaviour. A complex mix of economic, social, cultural, and political factors are driving the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. These include factors that are not unique to sub-Saharan Africa ? the denial surrounding HIV/AIDS, stigma and discrimination against those living with HIV/AIDS, gender inequalities, poverty, and cultural beliefs and practices.
The stigma, denial and discrimination surrounding HIV/AIDS act as barriers against positive action in addressing the epidemic. Gender inequality also drives the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While biologically women and girls ? rooted in limited sexual power or autonomy ? plays a role in the spread of HIV, poverty and underdevelopment also play a role in HIV transmission, as do armed conflicts.
Gender equality and the well-being of women are inextricably linked. This study illustrates how HIV/AIDS is related to the gender inequality in sub-Saharan Africa, through the gender analysis. HIV/AIDS is exacerbating the difficulties that women face in the area of law and justice. Although HIV/AIDS affects both men and women, women are more vulnerable for biological, epidemiological and social reasons. Men and women have a greater risk of acquiring HIV in the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs in women are less noticed and often go undiagnosed. The stigma of STIs in women can also discourage them from getting treatment. Cultural, social and economic pressures make women more likely to contract HIV infection than men. Women are often less able to negotiate safer sex due to factors such as their lower status, economic dependence and fear of violence. There is a strong gender difference in the age-related prevalence of HIV/AIDS, with the average age of infected women in Africa typically being several years lower than that of men.
Gender analysis is crucial to understanding HIV/AIDS transmission and initiating appropriate programmes of action. It forms the basis for the changes required to create an environment in which women and men can protect themselves and each other. This study will be of help to understand HIV/AIDS epidemic by understanding of the socially constructed aspects of relations between women and men in sub-Saharan Africa.
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