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三峰 鄭道傳의 政治思想

三峰 鄭道傳의 政治思想
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(A) Study of SamBong Chung Dojeon's political thoughts
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대학원 정치외교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
This thesis is to grasp a theoretical structure of the ideology of ChungDojeon(三峰 鄭道傳 1342-1398) under consideration that his ideology is characterized with the philosophical idea thory of anti-Buddhism and recognition in terms of the theory of administration on the change of politics and idelogy along with the transition of the dynasty from Koryo to Chosun. The period of Chung Dojeon's activities of politics and ideology was majorly around the end of the 14th century when the politically reforming movement characterized typically by the reform theory of autocracy and the theory of anti-Buddhism was in full swiong. In particular under the circumstances that metaphysics(性理學) had been introduced into the nation throughtout a period from the end of the 13th century to the end of the 14th century, such a metaphysic idea became the starting point of thinking to Chung Dojeon, who then would theoretically criticize the abuses of Buddhism and reform the sturcture of the Koryo dynasty that was fostering such abuses. The Buddhism around the end of the Koryo dynasty had been secularized in pratice and could not maintain its role as a state religion. Anso, the excessive owning of the land by Royal families, influencial families, and Buddhist temples using their political power had threatened the stability both in national economy and the people's economy. Under such circumstances, the issue was to realize benebolent administration(德治) - i.e., to materialize a virtuous nation, and Chung Dojeon had thought that for realizing the displacement of politics and ideology, it can be done only through the structural reform based on the ideology of metaphysics. Thus, it was conceived by Chung-Dojeon that the idelogy of metaphysics would make possible of keeping order politically and socially and realizing a virtuous nation as well, and therefore, it became the basis of ideology for benevolent administration and the institutional reform was recognized as a task in the meaning of the ultimated realization of benevolent administration. In consideration of the trend of Chung Doieon's ideology so far reviewed, he had understood that the realization of 'venevolence(仁)', a metaphisical value was the very politics and the realistic basis on which venevolent administration was materialized was institutional reform. In this regard, his politics and metaphysical idea has a unified point of logic. Even so, to him no inclusive picture of the world based on metaphysics been established. Rather he had emphasized on the political speculation characterized with othodoxy - i.e., necessity of institutional reform in order to respond to the realistic situation of contemporary, political structure. Since such attitude is thought to be originated from his realistic awareness, it can be thinkable that his idelogy was characterized with a realistic trend. Therefore, in consideration of the ideological trend of Chung Dojeon, it evidences that he had been a phylosopher in the transitional period from the Koryo dynasty to the Chosun dynasty.;本 論文은 三峰 鄭道傳(1342-1398)思想의 特質이 高麗朝로부터 朝鮮朝에로의 政治, 思想的 變動에 대한 性理思想과 排佛論, 經世論的 認識에 있다고 보고, 그 論理的 構造를 捕捉하고자 한 것이다. 鄭道傳의 政治 ,思想活動時期는 주로 14세기말로 田制改革과 排佛로 대표되는 政治改革運動期에 해당된다. 특히 13세기말로부터 14세기말에 이르는 기간동안 性理學이 導入 ,受容되어 있는 狀況이었다. 따라서 性理學的 思惟는 鄭道傳에게 있어서 佛敎弊端에 대한 理論的 批判과 그러한 弊端을 조장하는 高麗朝의 體制를 改革하고자 하는 思考의 깃점이 되었다. 실제로 高麗朝末期에 佛敎는 世俗化되어 國敎로서의 역할을 保持하지 못했으며, 또한 王室과 權門勢族, 寺院의 政治權力을 이용한 과도한 土地所有는 國家經濟와 民의 經濟的 安定을 위협하였다. 따라서 「德治」, 즉 道德國家의 실현이 문제시되었고, 그것은 現實的으로 政治, 思想的 交替를 필요로 하는 상황이었다. 鄭道傳은 이것이 性理思想과 體制改革을 통해서만 가능한 것으로 생각하였다. 따라서 鄭道傳에게 있어서 性理思想은 道德閼家로의 政治社會의 秩序化를 가능하게 하는 理論으로 이해되어 德治를 위한 理念的 基礎가 되었다. 鄭道傳은 現實的으로 德治의 窮極的인 實現이라는 意味에 있어서의 制度改革을 課題로 自覺하였다. 鄭道傳의 思想傾向을 보면, 그는 仁이라는 性理學的 價値의 實現이 政治이며 仁政을 實現할 現實的 基盤이 制度改革이라고 認識하는 傾向을 보이고 있다. 그러므로 그의 政治와 性理學的 思考는 仁이라는 하나의 統一된 論理를 갖는다. 그럼에도 불구하고 鄭道傳에게 있어서는 아직 性理學的 思惟를 基調로 하는 包括的인 세계상이 確立되었던 것은 아니다. 그는 오히려 당시의 政治體制의 現實的인 狀況에 對處하기 위하여 傳統의 흐름을 탄 政治的 思惟, 즉 制度改革의 필요성을 强調하고 있었다. 이것은 당시의 現實에 대한 認識에서 비롯되는 것으로 이점에서 그의 思想은 過渡期的 性格을 보여준다.
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