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趙熙龍(1789-1866)의 회화사상과 창작성향

Title
趙熙龍(1789-1866)의 회화사상과 창작성향
Other Titles
Jo Hui-ryong(1789-1866)’s Views on Painting and His Temperament as an Artist
Authors
문기윤
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 미술사학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
홍선표
Abstract
현존하는 저술서를 통해 볼 수 있는 조희룡의 언술들은 그의 회화사상이 중세적 가치관에 기반을 두고 이루어졌음을 알게 해 주는 사료이기에 매우 소중하다. 그럼에도 불구하고 조희룡에 대한 연구는 대체로 ‘김정희라는 大家와 그 아류’라는 이분법적 논리에서 폄하되었던 조희룡을 또 다른 대가로 부각시키려는 목적과 19세기의 다변했던 시대조류 속에서 성급히 근대성을 추출하려는 관점에서 전개되었다. 결과적으로 조희룡은 평가와 해석의 과정에서 근대적 자아관과 창작관을 지닌 화가로 다분히 오해되었으므로 중세적 관점에서 재해석되어야 할 필요가 있다. 이를 위해 본 연구는 조희룡이 남긴 언술의 내용과 의미를 구체적으로 파악함으로써 이를 기반으로 그의 창작성향과 작품의 조형성을 해석하고자 하였다. 조희룡의 회화사상은 근본적으로는 老莊思想과 유학적 가치관 및 불교사상에 기반을 두고 형성되었으며, ‘東道主義’에 따른 문인화론과 ‘寫意的 傳神論’의 확산이라는 맥락 속에서 전개되었다. 그는 회화창작을 우주만물의 생성과 같이 여겼던 이 시기 동아시아의 창작관에 따라 자신을 創生에 동참하는 ‘共創者’로 인식하였다. 物我一體에서 얻어지는 ‘我法’을 추구했으며, 이는 손이 마음의 뜻에 응하는 ‘心手相應’의 상태에서 표출된다고 여겼다. 또 한 획 가운데 모든 이치가 함축되어 있다는 ‘一字論’, 닮지 않음을 통해 傳神 할 수 있다는 ‘極不似而極似’의 사상을 피력하기도 하였다. 창작 성향으로는 ‘심수상응론’을 실천하기 위해 무위적으로 붓을 휘두르는 ‘塗抹’, ‘亂抹’의 태도와, 文雅함을 드러내기 위한 ‘頹唐放筆’의 성향을 보였다. 이러한 성향은 모두 인위성을 배제하고자 한 것으로, 마음을 비우고 붓이 가는대로 자신을 맡기는 ‘虛心聽筆, 偶然得之’도 같은 맥락에서 이해된다. 조희룡은 이러한 회화사상과 창작성향을 기반으로, 대상물의 재현보다는 그것이 지닌 본질의 구현을 중시하였다. 이에 따라 文字氣와 金石氣를 담기 위해 글씨를 쓰듯 그림을 그렸다. 또, 梅ㆍ蘭ㆍ竹ㆍ菊ㆍ石과 같은 구상적 소재를 다루면서도 궁극적으로는 자연이치의 造化力과 創生力을 표현하고자 했다. 본 논문은 이와 같이 조희룡의 회화사상과 창작의 지향점을 당대적 관점에서 밝힘으로써 그의 창작성향과 작품의 조형적 측면을 재해석하였으며 이를 통해 그의 작가적 면모를 좀 더 실체에 근접하게 이해할 수 있게 하였다.;Several literary anthologies containing writings by Jo Hui-ryong, invaluable for understanding his views on painting and art, have survived to today. His views on painting were heavily influenced by medieval values. However, Jo Hui-ryong’s legacy has been long overshadowed by that of Kim Jeong-hui and he was regarded as an epigone of Kim. In response, a number of researches were conducted to shed new light on Jo Hui-ryong as a master painter in his own right and to discover modernity in the works of Jo Hui-ryong whose career unfolded amid the various and changing currents of the 19th century. As a result of this, Jo Hui-ryong was often misunderstood as a painter with a modern sense of self-awareness and artistic view. This paper, written as an attempt to reinterpret his legacy in a manner to bring to light the medieval influence on his paintings, examines writings left by him to reconstruct his artistic views. Jo Hui-ryong’s views on painting were formed against the backdrop of such currents of thought as 'dongdojuui(東道主義)' and 'sauijeok jeonsinnon(寫意的 傳神論)', emphasizing the spiritual essence of a painting subject rather than visual resemblance to the subject, which gained popularity during his time, and was ideologically embedded in the Philosophy of Lao Tzu and Zhuangzi, Confucian values and the Buddhism. Following the conception of painting as an act of creation similar to the creation of all things in the universe, he recognized himself as a co-creator participating in this creative process. He believed that ‘one’s own methods(我法)’ can be attained when the hand communicate with the mind. Jo Hui-ryong further subscribed to ideas like ‘iljaron(一字論),’ the belief that one stroke contained all principles of the universe, or ‘guekbulsa igeuksa(極不似而極似)’, meaning that one can truly convey the subject of a painting by avoiding resemblance. In trying to capture his inner creativity, Jo Hui-ryong sought a tendency of ‘domal(塗抹)’ and ‘nanmal(亂抹)’ which can be translated as “spontaneity” that is consistent with his belief in the intimate correspondence between the hand and the mind. His paintings also show a tendency toward the so-called ‘toedangbangpil(頹唐放筆),’ which gave them a touch of literary elegance(文雅). All of these tendencies had one thing in common: they were all driven toward eliminating contrivedness and artificiality, in favor of paintings created almost purely out of spontaneous brushstrokes, while the mind of the artist is free of any particular intention or preconceived ideas. Jo Hui-ryong also held the view that a painting should capture the essence of a subject, rather than representing it mimetically. This was one reason why he employed calligraphic methods in his paintings, as a way of injecting the flavor of literati and epigraphy(文字氣ㆍ金石氣) into them. Meanwhile, even when he dealt with figurative subjects such as plum blossoms, orchid, bamboo, chrysanthemum or stone, his ultimate goal was to reveal the power of harmony and vitality inherent in the nature. This paper casts new light on Jo Hui-ryong’s artistic temperament and credo and reinterprets his paintings based on views on painting and art that were contemporary to his lifetime. Through this effort, the author was able to gain intimate and more holistic insights into Jo Hui-ryong as an artist.
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