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국내 무용아트마켓 발전 방안 연구

Title
국내 무용아트마켓 발전 방안 연구
Other Titles
Research of Development Plans for Korean Dance Art Market based on European Case Studies
Authors
박혜윤
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 무용학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
신상미
Abstract
본 연구는 무용아트마켓의 개념과 구조를 중심으로 국내무용아트마켓의 현황을 살피고 유럽 무용아트마켓의 사례연구를 통해 국내무용아트마켓의 발전방안을 연구하는 데 그 목적을 지닌다. 아트마켓은 공연예술을 공급하는 공급자로서의 예술단체와 예술단체들의 공연작품을 수요자인 관객에게 전달하는 매개자로서의 공연기획자를 대상으로 인적, 예술적 교류와 홍보를 통해 해외진출의 기회를 얻기 위한 만남의 장(場)이라 할 수 있다. 이러한 아트마켓의 설립배경은 예술분야의 문화산업적 환경변화에 의해 무용, 음악, 연극과 같은 공연예술분야도 경제성을 감안한 경영학적 홍보마케팅의 도입이 필요하다는 인식이 대두되면서 다양한 분야에서 아트마켓이 개최되고 있다. 무용아트마켓이란 무용분야에 종사하는 광범위한 무용관계자들이 무용에 대한 다양한 예술적 정보를 교환하고 인적 네트워크의 확장을 통해 해외진출의 성사를 이루기 위한 만남의 장(場)이라 할 수 있다. 이러한 무용아트마켓의 유형은 공연기획자와 무용단체의 만남을 주목적으로 하는 쇼케이스형과 많은 관람객과 공연기획자들로 인해 자연스럽게 아트마켓의 기능을 하게 되는 축제형 무용아트마켓, 그리고 쇼케이스와 축제형태가 혼합된 무용아트마켓으로 나눠볼 수 있다. 현재 국내에서 개최되고 있는 무용아트마켓은 축제형으로서 한 해 약 30개의 무용축제가 개최되고 있다. 그러나 국내에서 개최되고 있는 무용축제는 급속한 양적 발전에도 불구하고 운영적인 측면과 홍보, 성과적 측면에서 다양한 문제점들이 도출되고 있다. 특히 대부분의 축제가 광범위한 목표설정과 유사한 프로그램의 구성으로 무용축제들 간에 차별화 된 방향성과 전략적인 프로그램을 제시하지 못하고 있다. 또한 이러한 축제형 무용아트마켓이 국내무용단체들의 해외진출을 지원하는 아트마켓으로서의 역할도 잘 수행되지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 해외사례연구에서 살펴보았던 독일 뒤셀도르프 무용아트마켓과 영국 댄스 엄브렐라는 전 세계 무용단체와 공연기획자들의 인적교류의 확장을 위한 장(場)으로서의 역할을 하기 위해 보다 많은 무용단체와 공연기획자들의 참여를 유도하고, 다양한 프로그램을 구성하여 해외진출의 기회를 마련하고 있다. 또한 예술의 사회적 역할과 다양한 경험의 제공을 통해 무용분야의 발전을 위해 노력하고 있다. 이들의 성공요인을 4가지로 도출해보면 첫째, 다양한 형태의 인적교류 활동을 통해 예술적 지식과 정보를 교환할 수 있고 이를 통해 보다 혁신적인 예술적 아이디어가 창출된다는 점이다. 둘째, 무용아트마켓의 운영에 있어서 민간차원의 자율적인 운영을 보장한다는 것이다. 이는 무용아트마켓의 올바른 방향성을 제시하고 실제로 그것을 실현해내는 가장 중요한 부분이다. 셋째, 오랜 역사를 통해 대규모 무용아트마켓의 기획, 관리, 운영을 위한 숙련된 인력과 노하우를 보유하고 있다는 점이다. 넷째, 유럽이라는 유리한 입지적 조건을 지녔다는 점이다. 이는 이미 공연예술분야의 오랜 역사와 사회구조의 발전된 예술적 환경으로 인해 다양한 네트워크의 기반이 조성되어 있다는 점과 유럽의 많은 국가들이 근접한 거리에 위치하고 있어 다양한 유럽 국가들의 참여를 쉽게 돕고 있다는 입지적 조건 역시 무용아트마켓의 성공적인 개최의 요인으로 꼽을 수 있을 것이다. 국내 무용아트마켓의 발전방안은 크게 계획을 수립하는 단계와 그것을 실행하는 단계로서 무용아트마켓이 지향하는 명확한 방향성을 설정하고 거기에 따른 다양한 내용을 설계하는 것에서부터 시작하여야 한다. 특히 무용아트마켓의 방향성은 아트마켓을 개최하는데 있어서 핵심적인 포커스를 어디에 둘 것이며 이를 통해 어떠한 내용을 설계하고 실행하여 목적에 이를 것인가에 관한 문제로서 이는 성공적인 무용아트마켓의 개최에 있어서 가장 중요한 요소라 할 수 있다. 또한 주제를 선정하는데 있어서 이미 검증된 대중들의 예술적 기호에 영합하는 것이 아니라 보다 창의적이고 예술적인 새로운 것을 시도할 수 있는 기회의 장(場)을 마련하고 이를 통해 계획을 실행하는 단계에서는 조직과 프로그램의 구성 그리고 홍보와 같이 실제로 아트마켓이 개최되는 동안 필요한 실행구조의 운영이 보다 효율적이고 전략적으로 이루어져야 할 것이다.;An art market is a place where art, in the viewpoint of the cultural industry, is adjusted to the distribution structure of a marketplace. It can be defined as a space where performance artists and producers come together in a set time and place for communication and publicity, with the purpose of advancement into foreign countries. The beginnings of such art markets arose from realization of the importance of business management and marketing in the areas of performing arts such as dance, music, and drama. The art market has the function of a meeting place where art groups, who are the suppliers of performing arts, and production planners, who convey these performances to the consumers, or audiences, can achieve their goals. Such art markets, in order to foster the independent growth of performing arts, are working to advance their respective countries’ performing arts into foreign countries through varied and strategic programs. South Korea, acknowledging the positive attributes of such art markets as well as their necessity, established the Performing Art Markets in Seoul in 2005 with the purpose of setting the foundation for further growth and for entry into foreign countries. However, because the Seoul Art Market is an organization that supports all areas of performing arts and is not particularly focused on dance, this paper aims to research development of art markets devoted to dance. Such markets are expected to have the role of increasing human networking within the field of dance, as well as establishing the foundations for independent growth. A dance market is a market where choreographers, dance companies, and the large audiences that follow dance performances can attain various kinds of artistic information while expanding their social networks, ultimately providing a way for entrance into foreign countries. Dance markets can be distinguished into three types. The first type is the showcase form, which focuses on acting as the meeting place for dance companies and production planners. The second is the festival form, where many art groups, audiences, and production planners gather with the purpose of participating in a festival, with the functions of an art market occurring naturally. The third type is the form where the show case and the festival are held together. An art market therefore not only functions as a place where performing arts groups and production planners can exchange information and expand their networks, but also gives opportunities for inspiration and the creativity of performing arts groups, helping to add to the flow of creative works in global art markets. Currently, in South Korea, there are about 30 festival form dance markets opening every year. However, even though such festivals have seen rapid quantitative growth, the festivals being opened in Korea have many problems in planning and operation. In particular, most dance festivals lack characterized formats and contents, being mostly similar to each other and therefore being unable to support the launch of Korean dance companies into foreign countries. The reason for such a problem is that Korean dance companies do not set specific goals or audiences before opening festivals. The reason an art market needs to decide on a set goal and audience is that through the setting of such goals, the creative direction of the festival is decided and the contents and quality of the performances change drastically depending on the goal. Also, the art market’s final success in its role and function is dependent on the direction and goals set early on in the decision-making process. Therefore in order to open a dance market, a clear purpose and audience must be set, and a plan must be formulated according to such direction, allowing the opening of an art market that corresponds with established goals. To take foreign examples of dance markets, there is the International Tanzmesse nrw in Germany, a showcase type of dance market, and the Dance Umbrella in London, a festival type. Through these cases the effect an art market’s purpose and target audience has on its form and contents can be seen. Germany’s International Tanzmesse nrw has the goal of expanding the networking of people involved in dance worldwide. Therefore, in order to function in its role in expanding the networks of dance companies and production planners, it works to increase the involvement of dance companies and production planners, designing various programs to target such groups and allowing opportunities for overseas expansion. In contrast to this, Dance Umbrella in London, a festival type market, focuses on making a positive contribution to society and offering varied artistic experiences to the public, having the goal of providing artistic enjoyment and helping to develop dance as a performing art. As can be seen from these two different types of dance markets, depending on the goal and target audience of the dance market, its form, function, and role can change. In the case of Germany’s International Tanzmesse nrw, the target audience includes the dance groups and production planners involved in dance, while London’s Dance Umbrella’s target audience are the citizens in the region, and which therefore places greater emphasis on providing them with artistic enjoyment and education. Also, while Dance Umbrella’s format is a festival form, it functions naturally as an art market because of the one hundred thousand people who come to participate in the festival. Various reasons for the successes of Germany’s International Tanzmesse nrw and London’s Dance Umbrella can be deducted. First of all, through varying forms of human networking activities, artistic knowledge and information can be exchanged, allowing for the creation of more dynamic artistic ideas. Second, such dance markets are operated based on the interest of private corporations and citizens, which is a crucial factor in allowing dance markets to have freedom of direction and operation. Third, through a long history in implementing large-scale dance markets, these dance markets have deep background knowledge and trained personnel in planning, administration, and operation. Fourth, they have the positional advantage of being located within Europe. Europe has a long history in the area of performing arts and the structural environment developed within society allows a foundation to foster various artistic networks. Also, the location within Europe allows a close proximity with many countries, allowing European countries to participate in their activities. A possible development plan for South Korea’s dance market would need organized phases, which can be mainly divided into a program design phase and an execution phase. The program design phase would involve deciding a direction for the art market and then establishing fitting contents for the program, while the execution phase would involve fulfilling the formulated plan by forming a proper organization, composing the program, and performing marketing. During the program design phase, it is necessary to make a clear decision on the direction of dance market, and then to establish the program so that the entire course is organized and implemented according to the set direction. When opening an art market, the decision on its main focus will determine the contents, program, and goals of the entire project, but if this main focus is not clearly stated, then the desired results of the program will also be unclear. After formulating the outline for the plan and progression, the next step is to formulate the overall program composition and devising the detailed choreographic plans for the project. When choosing a subject for an art market, rather than catering to the popular likes of public, it is important to offer creative and artistic new material. During the execution phase, the organization responsible for undertaking the operation of the dance market must be decided, and actual structural components necessary for the operation of the dance market, such as the program and promotion methods, must be organized. For the successful opening of an art market, the head committee, which promotes the opening of the art market, and the board of directors, which plays a large role in the overall operation of the market as well as in securing talent, all play important roles. The actual operation of the market is performed by the Art Director and the Board the Art Director being the person who designs the opening of the dance market, and whose authority and terms will largely determine the success of the dance market. As for the contents of the program, suggestions to improve problems in the current conditions of the Korean Dance Market include programs that provide assistance for expansion of Korean dance companies into foreign countries, programs designed for greater exchange of artistic information, and programs designed to better procure audiences, all of which shown with actual examples and measures to be taken. In promoting the art market, marketing strategies should be separately devised for production planners located overseas, for dance groups located within the country, and for general audiences, all requiring analysis of their present condition in order to create a more strategic marketing plan.
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