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Service Quality of International Conference and its Impact on the National Image of Korea

Title
Service Quality of International Conference and its Impact on the National Image of Korea
Other Titles
국제회의 서비스품질이 한국 국가이미지에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구
Authors
황승은
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 국제사무학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
황혜진
Abstract
The current world of the 21st century can be coined as a "knowledge-information society." While economic significance was focused on goods and commodities in the phase of industrial society, the current knowledge information society puts significance on symbolic values. Now that people have over-surpassed their basic living concerns, interests are shifting on values. This puts importance on increasing value on intangible assets. Nations are now shifting their attention on symbolic values and the importance of national image is magnified more than ever. Importance of international conference has become another significant realm of interests. Hosting international conferences gives rise to diverse benefits from economic to social, cultural and political realms to companies, host cities and host countries. Therefore, many countries are now putting efforts to endorse international conference industry in a global standing. This study focuses on relationship between international conference and national image. International conference is viewed through the concept of service quality. By analyzing components of service quality, the study finds out which elements influence more strongly than others on national image. Service quality of international conference is divided into five factors; information usefulness, destination attractiveness, physical evidence, program excellence and human interaction. National image is divided into four factors; society, economy, culture and Korean people. The research purposes are to study the service quality of international conferences held in Korea, national image of Korea perceived by foreign participants, their general satisfactory level while staying in Korea and to study relationship between service quality of international conference and perceived national image of Korea by foreign participants. This research intends to show the importance of managing image via means of international conference and to bring about implications for international office administrators in terms of their fields of business. Target subjects of this study were foreign people who have experience of participating in an international conference in Korea that meets the standards of ICCA. 320 questionnaires were randomly distributed to people attending 7 international conferences held from March to May. Among the total, 298 surveys were valid and were taken into a statistical study. The results of correlation analysis show positive relationships. The higher the factors of service quality of international conference are rated, the higher the national image of Korea is viewed. Regression analysis show among the five service quality factors, program excellence and human interaction have positive relationship with the society image of Korea. Destination attractiveness, program excellence and human interaction have positive influence with the economy, culture and people image of Korea. In conclusion, regression analysis of service quality of international conference and the national image of Korea show that among the five, three factors; destination attractiveness, program excellence and human interaction have positive influence on the national image of Korea. The study empirically proved that international conference does have positive influence on conference attendees in how they perceive national image. The study showed information usefulness and physical evidence do not pose significant influence on building up of national image while destination attractiveness, program excellence and human interaction do. By applying the concept of service quality that is broadly dealt with in previous academical fields of business and marketing, the study is easily applicable to real cases. The study is of significant importance for the people especially engaged in international office administration. International office administrators are in the position of hosting a diverse types of conferences such as multinational teleconference, kickoff events and departmental meetings. As multinational companies are playing greater role in the global economy greater importance is put on international office administrators to handle diverse tasks not only domestically but rather globally. Successful planning and implementation of conferences and events positively affect image of the company, CEO and executives to outer people. This is ultimately because it is not only physical goods but rather intangible mediums such as service and image that receive utmost significance in the current society. However, this study can be improved by supplementing a few points. Studies could be carried from attendees from a more diverse fields of international conferences. Due to specific time limits, option of conferences were also limited and so were types and topics of the international conferences. A large sample of data by incorporating opinions from different types of participants is thus recommended to justify opinions of the major population. Further, the current study was forbidden to interview participants directly from the conferences due to confidentiality issues and uncooperative responses from hosts. With collaboration from host sides, more thorough research would have been done. International conference and nation are comprehensive concepts which are compositions of everything. This includes elements of education, culture, human, economy and technology. Just as an individual's image is defined by complex factors including appearance, personality, family background and social status, the same notion applies to a national image. This also applies to international conference for it not only includes physical constituents but also intangible parts that connotate intangible values and implications. In short, the concepts of international conference and national image are complex parts of a puzzle that makes completion once all the parts are put together. The study attempted to provide a preliminary basis for understanding the relationship between international conference and national image and is expected to contribute to activating of a new field of studies. Moreover, it intends to be the backbone of further studies related to meetings, conventions and events related to companies, organizations and institutes who intend to improve their images by contributing to their research abilities.;현대는 이미지의 시대에 있다고 해도 과언이 아니다. 이러한 경향은 사회가 점차 대중 사회화되고 정보 사회화되면서 증대할 것으로 보인다. 국가이미지 형성을 위한 정보에는 사람, 기업, 사회, 정부, 자연환경, 문화, 경제, 상품 등 그 국가와 관련된 여러 가지 다양한 정보가 포함된다. 따라서 국가이미지란 전체적인 국민의 이미지, 개인의 이미지, 기업의 이미지, 정부의 이미지, 상품의 이미지 등 여러 가지 차원이 복합적으로 얽혀서 형성되는 개념이라고 할 수 있다. 한 나라에 대해 주관적이며 복합적으로 형성된 이미지는 그 나라의 정치, 외교, 경제 및 문화적인 면에 많은 영향을 미친다. 특히 교통과 매스 커뮤니케이션기술의 발달로 국가 간 교류가 활발해진 것과 더불어 국제관계에 대한 일반인들의 관심이 높아지면서 국가이미지의 중요성이 그 어느 때보다 증대되고 있다. 이는 곧 교류할 수 있는 공공의 장의 필요로 이어지며 국제회의 수요를 증가시키는 요인이 되고 있다. 이러한 흐름에 맞추어 미래학자 엘빈 토플러(2006)는 21세기의 부는 고객가치를 창출할 수 있는 차별적인 지식을 먼저 확보한 개인이나 기업, 국가가 차지하게 될 것이라고 예측하였고, 지식은 더 많은 사람들이 사용하고 또 공유할수록 그 호용 가치가 높아진다고 하였다. 토플러는 지식의 공급이 그 유한성을 뛰어넘고 있으며 지식이 상호작용하면서 더 거대하고, 힘 있는 지식으로 재편되고 있음을 주목하였으며 이는 곧 국제회의의 중요성을 다시금 부각시키게 하였다. 본 연구는 국제회의 서비스품질이 국가이미지에 미치는 영향에 관하여 연구하였다. 실증연구는 3월에서 5월간 한국에서 개최되어진 국제회의에 참여한 외국인들을 대상으로 실행하였으며, 분석의 도구로는 변수들 간의 상관관계 파악을 위하여 SPSS를 이용한 상관관계 분석을, 그리고 변수들 간의 영향력 구조를 파악하기 위하여 회귀분석을 이용하였다. 연구를 통하여 얻어진 결과는 국제회의 서비스품질이 높을수록 한국국가 이미지가 높아지는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 또한 국제회의 서비스품질 중 프로그램 탁월함과 사람과의 교류가 높을수록 사회 이미지가 높아지고, 국제회의 서비스품질 중 개최지 매력도, 프로그램 탁월함, 사람과의 교류가 높을수록 경제 이미지, 문화 이미지가, 한국인 이미지가 높아졌다. 종합적으로 개최지 매력도, 프로그램 탁월함, 사람과의 교류가 높을수록 한국 국가이미지가 높아지는 것으로 밝혀졌으며 정보의 유용성과 물리적 증거는 유의미한 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 이는 국가이미지를 개선시키고자 하는 전략으로 정보자료의 제공방법, 컨벤션 웹사이트의 운영, 시청각 기자재와 인터넷의 운영, 회의장의 좌석 및 온도와 조명 등 물질적인 기자재들 보다는 문화적, 심리적 가치가 있는 무형적 가치가 더 효과적이라는 것으로 국제회의 관련된 서비스 제공 주체에 시사 하는 바가 있을 것이다.
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