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Feminization of Poverty in Kenya

Title
Feminization of Poverty in Kenya
Authors
MBOYA, RUTH KERUBO
Issue Date
2010
Department/Major
국제대학원 국제학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 국제대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김은미
Abstract
Poverty permeates all aspect of human life. Globally this is a challenging phenomenon as eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is the first Millennium Development Goal which the world is struggling to achieve. Poverty is hence a crucial subject especially in developing countries where majority of the poor live. Poverty has also been found to be more prevalent among women. This study therefore sought to understand the main causes of poverty among women in Kenya. This thesis has found that majority of people living in extreme poverty are women and that poverty has acquired a woman’s face. This is what the thesis refers to as ‘feminization of poverty’. This thesis has also found that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in feminization of poverty in Kenya. Meeting the targets of the first Millennium Development Goal therefore appears to depend on the extent to which governments will achieve empowerment of female headed households, mitigation of effects of structural adjustment policies among women, elimination of gender disparities and mitigation of effects of HIV/AIDS on women in Kenya in order to free as many women as possible from the poverty trap. By using Gender and Development(GAD) analytical framework under the perspective of Moghadam(2005) and Vicente (2005) to analyze major causes of feminization of poverty in Kenya, this thesis has found the main causes to be ; increasing number of female headed households, negative disproportionate effects of structural adjustment policies, gender discrimination and impact of HIV/AIDS among women in Kenya. The study, based on secondary data sources, found that poverty affects women more than men, thus affecting men and women differently. This study recommends that the Kenyan government devices measures to empower female headed households, put in place mitigation measures on effects of structural adjustment policies on women and elimination of gender inequalities in education, property ownership, employment and political representation. Based on empirical findings, this thesis further recommends that the Kenyan government places more emphasis of mitigation of socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on women which has been found to be an important factor in feminization of poverty in Kenya.;빈곤은 모든 인류에게서 발생하며 전 지구적으로 심각한 상황을 초래하고 있다. 절대빈곤타파를 위해 전 세계가 달성하려는 새천년개발목표의 첫 번째 목표인 빈곤이 만연하고 있는 개도국에서 빈곤은 핵심 주제이다. 또한 빈곤은 여성들에게 더욱 심각한 문제이다. 따라서 이 논문은 케냐 여성의 빈곤의 주 원인을 이해하고자 한다. 이 연구는 절대 빈곤을 겪고 있는 다수가 여성이며 빈곤의 여성화를 의미하는 뜻으로 “빈곤이 여성의 얼굴을 갖고 있다” 라는 점을 밝히고 있다. 이 논문은 케냐에서 여성의 빈곤화에 HIV/AIDS가 중요한 역할을 하고 있다고 주장한다. MDGs 첫 번째 목표 달성을 위해서는 케냐 정부가 여성 가장의 권한 강화를 달성하고, 구조조정정책이 여성에게 미치는 부정적 효과를 줄이고, 성불평등을 제거하며 HIV/AIDS 를 감소시켜야 한다. Moghadam(2005)와 Vicente(2005)의 젠더와 개발의 분석틀을 사용하여 분석한 케냐의 여성빈곤 원인은 여성가장의 증가, 구조조정정책의 악영향, 성불평등, 여성 HIV/AIDS 영향이다. 이 논문은 2차 자료에 기준한 연구결과를 바탕으로 여성이 남성보다 빈곤의 영향을 더 많이 겪고 있다는 점을 밝히고 있으며, 케냐 정부가 여성 가장의 권한강화를 위한 장치를 제공해야 한다고 제안한다. 또한 케냐에서의 여성빈곤화의 중요한 요인인 HIV/AIDS의 사회경제적 영향을 감소시켜야 한다고 제안한다.
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