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아동의 신종인플루엔자 예방행동에 미치는 영향요인

Title
아동의 신종인플루엔자 예방행동에 미치는 영향요인
Other Titles
A Study on factors affecting Children's Preventive Behaviors for Novel Influenza A(H1N1)
Authors
박신영
Issue Date
2010
Department/Major
대학원 보건관리학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김명
Abstract
The objective of this study is to identify the factors which affect children's preventive behavior for novel influenza A(H1N1) and to provide basic data to health education which make children do the proper preventive behavior for influenza. With this, the subject of this study were 551 children who were attending on the 4~6th grade in elementary school in Seoul. The data were collected using a self-reporting questionnaire for 5 days from October 12 through 16, 2009. Data were all digitized and analyzed through percentages, means, and standard deviations, t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression, using SPSS Win 17.0K. The results of this study are as follows. 1. The ratio of students with general characteristics, 257(46.6%) were male and 294(53.4%) were female. 180 children were found to be attending 4th grade, 186 students were 5th and 185 were 6th grade. The children who have heard about Novel Influenza A(H1N1) were 99.1%, the order of information sources with overlapped answering is as follows : TV(502), teacher(396), Parent(389), Internet(302), Friends(245), Doctor(81). In addition, it was shown that while 57.7% replied that the children who have received an health education regarding to Novel Influenza A(H1N1), 88.7% were the children who have felt necessity of health education. The children who has friends or family members who were infected Novel Influenza A(H1N1) were 83(15.1%). 2. The average of Children's knowledge about Novel Influenza A(H1N1) was 6.75±1.88 out of 10. Among the perceived threat, the average of severity(4.04±1.02) was higher than the sensibility(1.87±0.80). Among the perceived efficacy, self efficacy(4.02±0.73) and respond efficacy(3.97±0.74) were almost same level. The average of fear was 3.17±1.29, 4.24±0.79 was for behavior intention, and 3.69±0.72 was for preventive behavior. 3. As for the children's knowledge about Novel Influenza A(H1N1), the group of female, the higher grade, the group that experienced influenza information and health education have shown higher level of knowledge, and it was statistically significant. In the category of EPPM, the group of male and that experienced health education were higher sensibility in perceived threat(p<.05). In sequence of grade(5th, 6th, 4th), 5th had the highest sensibility level, and the group which has relatives who were infected with Novel influenza have shown higher level of sensiblity(p<.01). For severity, female group(p<.05), the group experienced health education(p<.05), the group who needs health education(p<.01) have shown higher level of severity. There was no statistically significant in perceived efficacy according to general characteristics. 4. As for the children's fear about Novel Influenza A(H1N1), in order of grade(4th, 5th, 6th), 4th grade had the highest fear level(p<.05) and the group who needs health education was higher than the group who doesn't need(p<.001). In the level of behavior intention, female was higher than male and 4th grade had the highest level among the grades. Furthermore, the group who doesn't have relatives who were infected with Novel influenza was higher level of behavior intention and preventive behavior than those who had personal relevance(p<.05). 5. As for relationship between fear and the other variables, fear and knowledge had statistically significant correlations(p<.05). Also fear and sensibility, fear and severity had significant correlations(p<.001). In the case of behavior intention, behavior intention have correlation with sensibility, severity, self efficacy and respond efficacy, and it was statistically significant(p<.001). 6. As for relationship between preventive behavior and the other variables, correlations were observed with sensibility, self efficacy, respond efficacy and behavior intention, and it was statistically significant(p<.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between preventive behavior with knowledge, severity, fear. 7. According to the result of analyzing factors affecting preventive behavior for Novel Influenza A(H1N1), it was affected by variables such as perceived threat, perceived efficacy, behavior intention. Behavior intention was the most influencing variable and has shown influence in order of self efficacy, sensibility, severity and respond efficacy as follows.;본 연구는 서울시 일부 초등학생을 대상으로 신종인플루엔자 예방행동에 영향을 미치는 요인을 분석하여, 향후 아동에게 올바른 실천행위를 형성하게 하는 보건교육이 이루어지도록 기초자료를 제공하는데 그 목적을 두었다. 서울시 소재 초등학교 4, 5, 6학년 20개 학급 551명을 대상으로, 2009년 10월 12일부터 10월 16일까지 자기기입식 설문지에 의한 조사를 실시하였다. 수집된 자료는 모두 전산 부호화하여 SPSS for 17.0K windows를 이용하였고, 빈도, 백분율, 평균, 표준편차, t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, 피어슨 상관분석(Pearson Correlation), 다중회귀분석(Multiple Regression)의 통계기법을 이용하였으며, 연구의 주요결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 연구대상자 중 신종인플루엔자에 대해 들어본 경험이 있는 대상자는 전체의 99.1%, 신종인플루엔자에 대한 정보원은 TV(502명)가 가장 많았고, 선생님(396명), 부모님(389명), 인터넷(302명), 친구(245명), 의사(81명) 순으로 나타났다. 신종인플루엔자에 관한 보건교육을 받은 경험이 있는 대상자는 전체의 57.7%, 보건교육에 대한 필요성을 느끼는 대상자는 88.7%, 가족이나 친구 중 신종인플루엔자에 감염된 사람이 있는 대상자는 15.1%로 나타났다. 2. 아동의 신종인플루엔자에 대한 지식의 평균은 10점 만점에 6.75점이었고, 인지된 위협감과 인지된 효능감은 5점 만점으로 인지된 위협감 중 감수성은 1.87점, 심각성은 4.04점으로 감수성에 비해서 심각성에 대한 인지 수준이 높은 것으로 나타났고, 인지된 효능감 중 자기효능감은 4.02점, 반응효능감은 3.97점으로 비슷한 수준으로 나타났다. 아동의 신종인플루엔자에 대한 공포수준은 3.17점, 행동의도는 4.24점, 예방행동은 3.69점으로 행동의도가 예방행동보다 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 3. 신종인플루엔자에 대한 지식수준은 여자가, 학년이 높을수록, 신종인플루엔자에 대한 정보 있는 대상자가, 보건교육 경험이 있는 대상자일수록 유의하게 높았다. 인지된 위협감 중 감수성의 수준은 남자가, 보건교육 경험이 있는 대상자가 높았고, 5학년, 6학년, 4학년 순으로, 개인적 관련성이 있는 대상자가 더 높았다. 심각성의 수준은 여자와 보건교육 경험이 있는 사람이, 보건교육 필요성을 느끼는 사람이 더 높게 조사되었다. 인지된 효능감 중 자기효능감과 반응효능감은 일반적 특성에 따른 유의한 차이가 발견되지 않았다. 4. 신종인플루엔자에 대한 공포 수준은 4학년, 5학년, 6학년 순으로 높았으며, 보건교육이 필요하다고 생각하는 대상자일수록 유의하게 높았다. 행동의도의 수준은 여자가 남자보다, 4학년, 5학년, 6학년 순으로, 개인적 관련성이 없는 사람일수록 유의하게 높았고, 예방행동의 수준 역시 개인적 관련성이 없는 사람일수록 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 5. 신종인플루엔자에 대한 공포의 경우 지식, 감수성, 심각성에서 서로 유의한 관련성이 나타났고, 행동의도의 경우 감수성, 심각성, 자기효능감, 반응효능감과 각각 유의한 관련성이 있었다. 6. 신종인플루엔자에 대한 예방행동은 감수성, 자기효능감, 반응효능감, 행동의도와 서로 유의한 관련성이 나타났다. 지식, 심각성, 공포는 신종인플루엔자에 대한 예방행동과 유의한 관련성이 나타나지 않았다. 7. 신종인플루엔자 예방행동에 영향을 미치는 요인은 행동의도, 자기효능감, 감수성, 심각성, 반응효능감 순으로 유의하게 나타났다. 일반적 특성, 지식, 인지된 위협감, 인지된 효능감, 공포, 행동의도가 예방행동을 설명하는 설명력은 39.4%이었다.
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