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Dealing With North Korea

Dealing With North Korea
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1993년에서 2009년까지 남한의 대외 정책
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국제대학원 국제학과
이화여자대학교 국제대학원
The primary purpose of this study is to explore the development of South Korea's foreign policies towards North Korea from 1993 until 2009. This study discusses how domestic factors affected policies applied towards North Korea during Kim Young-Sam, Kim Dae-Jung, Roh Moo-Hyun and Lee Myung-Bak administrations. Secondly, my research describes the evolution of South Korea's foreign policy changes starting from a liberal perspective in the commencement of the phase of globalization at the beginning of 1990's. Then passing through a stage of commitment or rapprochement under the so called "Sunshine Policy" for almost a decade until mid 2000's, and finally reaching a period of drastic changes switching to a more neo-realist behavior during the last administration period of the revision, occurring in the present time. This study examines the decision-making structure of South Korean policies, the process followed, the institutions and players within the government that were directly involved in the foreign policy making and the evolution of policies towards North Korea for a lapse of sixteen years. This investigation includes the analysis of different leader's character and aims to find how the President's personality summed to the ideology of the main political parties, the result of the elections and the public opinion constitute the most important domestic inputs that may influence the decision-making process regarding foreign policy in South Korea. The results of the study prove two antagonistic patterns of behavior discernible within the sixteen-year period of analysis. Within the four administrations, two groups were distinguished; a conciliatory group who engage the North, including Kim Dae-Jung and Roh Moo-Hyun; and a stronger and less permissive governments, as the ones of Kim Young-Sam and Lee Myung-Bak. In addition, the analysis of Presidential character and public opinion throughout each administration, presented consistent outcomes (justified in polls results) demonstrating that every President played 'the North Korea card' as a campaign tool right before or after any electoral process to attract voters; also, despite the ideology that each of the Presidents represented, they were looking to achieve any new historical commitment with North Korea that would give them personal recognition globally. Through describing the policies applied towards North Korea in the course of four administrations, this research highlights the importance of domestic factors as molding agents shaping and influencing foreign policy decision-making in South Korea.;이 논문에서는 주로 1993년부터 2009년까지 북한에 대한 남한의 정책발전에 대하여 다루고자 한다. 연구범위는 김영삼 정부에서, 김대중, 노무현, 그리고 이명박 정부에 이르는 시기를 아우른다. 본 연구는 90년대 세계화의 국면으로 접어들 당시의 자유주의적 관점에서 시작되어 2000년 중반까지 약 10년간 계속된 이른바 "햇볕정책"의 실행 혹은 그러한 접근방식을 거쳐, 현재의 신현실주의적 태도로 급격히 변화한 남한의 정책변화를 설명하고 분석할 것이다. 본 연구는 또한 대외정책 수립과정을 이해하는 열쇠로서 내부적 요인과 외부적 요인을 검토함과 동시에, 북한정책 수립과정을 결정하는 남한의 관심사 및 각 행정부의 국제적 지향점을 다루기로 한다.
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