View : 41 Download: 0

朝鮮初期 風水地理思想의 適用

Title
朝鮮初期 風水地理思想의 適用
Other Titles
(A) study on the application of Poongsoo theory in the early years of the Kingdom of Chosun
Authors
朴天敏
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
대학원 사회생활학과
Keywords
조선초기풍수지리사상풍수사상
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The idea of Poongsoo(風水) is a theory whereby the state of the state of the earth is interpreted in terms of man's good or ill luck, and happiness or misery. This theory is originally known as Poongsoo(風水) or Ji-ri(地理) and it is also called Gamyeo(堪輿) or Jisul(地術) It comprises three elements, that is, mountain, water and direction. Poongsoo(風水), its ultimate goal being the pursuit of nam's welfare in life by utilizing the power of the heaven and the earth, catl be divided into Yangkipoongsoo(陽基風水) and Umkipoongsoo(陰基風水). The former applies to selecting sites of good omen for a nation's capital or a man's house, whereas the latter is concerned with the selection of fortunate grave sites for ancestors . It was in the days of a Buddhist monk named Dosun(道詵) at the end of the Kingdom of Silla that the idea of Poongsoo originally introduced from China spread nationwide in Korea. The idea could take root in the agricultural Shilla society without much difficylty because of the association of the idea with the primitive belief in the Goddess of Land, Jimosin(地母神). In the days of Kingdom of Koryo, the idea of Poongsoo connected with Docham(圖讖) theory which had been used to justify King Taejo(太祖) in his coup d'etat known as Yeoksung(易姓) revolution was assimilated into Buddhism, then the state religion. The influence of the Poongsoo theory in those days can be traced in such rituals as Palkwanhoi (八關會) and Yeondeunghoi (燃燈會). Even Koryo's basic national policy titled the Ten Admonitions (訓要十條) was also influenced in part by the idea of Poongsoo. therefore the influence of the Poongsoo theory was quite strong in the Kingdom of Koryo. In the Kingdom of Chosun founded on Confucianism as a basic doctrine the Poongsoo theory was buttressed and strengthened by accepting Yir, Yang and five elements theory(陰陽五行說) as well as Yikiron(理氣論) from the basic philosophy of Confucianism. In the idea of Yangkipoongsoo (陽氣風水), the following had been practiced;transfers of capitals in the reign of King Taejo (太祖) down to King Taejong (太宗), the nation-wide distribution of Jinsan (鎭山, mountain which safeguards Yangki), Bibo (裨補) or Abseung (壓勝) in the selection of capital sites or palaces, and Egeo (移居, the practice of a royal family moving to a temporary residence called Eoso in order to avoid misfortune or disease). As to the examples of Umkipoongsoo (陰基風水) the following can be cited -Sooneungi(壽陵地, the place selected in advance as a grave for a king or a queen), Bibo (裨補) or Abseung (壓勝) in case of building graves, or the selection of Taesilji (胎室地, the place where the royal womb is buried). As the early days of confusion eventually gave way to the peaceful reign of King Sejong, highly reputed as wise King from the East or Haedongyeosun (海東堯舜), many books on Ji-ri were introduced from China and the idea of Poongsoo seeped into various spheres of society. In order to meet such trend in society a governmental institute named Seowunkwan (書雲觀) that originated in the Kingdom of Koryo was streamlined as an established research center for the Poongsoo theory. For all its external development, the Poongsoo theory, which permeated into every sphere of the general public incurred many a bad side effect, as well; competition to take possession of a good burial place brought about the considerable reduction of arable land and inevitably many peasants were deprived of their land; bodies went unburied for days against law as they awaited the appearance of "right" burial sites; transfers of burial sites in pursuit of good fortunes or blessings from ancestors were also practiced on many ocassions. These deplorable trends inevitably lead to debates of pros and cons on the Poongsoo theory itself. However, even today we can not deny the undying influence of the Poongsoo theory. In this study, discussion of merits or demerits of the Poongsoo theory is not attempted. My intention is merely to survey the process whereby the Poongsoo theory came to be accepted as part of the public belief in the Kingdom of Chosun.;風水地理說은 땅의 형편을 入間의 吉凶禍福에 連結시켜 說明하는 學說로 「風水」 혹은 「地理」가 元 이며, 「堪輿」 「地術」이라 불리어지기도 한다. 이 說은 山·氷·方位의 三要素로 構成되었으며, 추구하는 궁극적인 目標는 天地의 힘을 빌어 入間生活의 福利를 꾀하고자 하는 것으로서 크게 나누어 볼때 住宅·都邑을 吉地에 세워 그 곳에 사는 사람이 福을 누리고자 하는 陽基風水와 先祖의 墓를 吉地에 定해 陰德을 얻고자 하는 陰基風水로 구분된다. 中國에서 發源한 風水地理說이 우리나라에 導入된 후 傳播되어 土着化의 첫 걸음을 내디딘 것은 羅末의 僧侶 道詵 以後이며 이것은 農耕會社인 우리나라 古來의 原始信仰인 地母神信仰과 結付되어 큰 저항없이 그 뿌리를 내릴 수 있었다. 高麗時代에 이르러서는 高麗太祖의 易姓革命을 合理化하는 圖讖說과 合流되었으며 當時의 國敎인 佛敎에 흡수되어 八關會·燃遼會에서 엿볼 수 있듯이 國策에 나타나는等 確固한 影響力을 지니게 되었다. 이 說은 또한 儒敎를 根本理念으로 내세운 朝鮮時代에 이르러서는 儒敎의 根本哲學인 陰陽五行說과 理氣論을 導入하여 理論的 뒷받침을 마련할 수 있었으며 民間信仰으로 뿐 아니라 普遍的인 眞理로서 支持와 庇護를 받아 堅固한 位置를 占하게 되었다. 이러한 朝鮮時代의 風水地理思想은 風水 原來의 추구하는 바인 두가지 目的으로 나뉘어 發展·繼承되어졌다. 卽 陽基風水의 方向으로서는 太祖~太宗에 걸친 遷都事業·全國的인 鎭山(陽基를 鎭護하는 山)의 分布·宮闕이나 都邑地에 對한 裨補와 壓勝·移居(厄·病 等을 避해 王家가 移御所에 머무는 것)等을 들 수 있으며, 陰基風水로는 壽陵(王·王后의 生前에 만드는 陵)地와 陵地選定·陵의 裨補와 壓勝·胎室地(王家의 胎를 묻은 地)의 選定 等을 손꼽아 볼 수 있다. 混亂된 朝鮮初期가 지나고 海東堯舜으로 稱頌되는 世宗代에 이르러서는 風水思想이 여러 방면에서 나타나게 되었고, 中國으로부터 많은 地理書를 導入하였으며, 高麗以來의 風水를 管掌한 書雲觀의 面貌를 整備하였다. 이러한 外形的인 發展에도 불구하고 一般大衆으로 침투한 風水思想은 많은 逆機能을 낳게 되었다. 卽 吉地를 擇해 墓를 定하려는 葬地爭占으로 因한 耕作地의 減少와 이에 따라 삶의 터전을 잃게 된 農民의 發生·나라에서 定한 葬期日數를 넘도록 埋葬하지 않는 葬習·단지 祖上의 陰德을 얻고자 不必要한 移葬을 强行하는 等의 弊害를 보이게끔 되었다. 이에 따라 당연히 風水地理說에 對한 拒否反應과 反省論이 일게되었지마는 그럼에도 불구하고 民間信仰으로서 오늘날까지 脈絡을 維持하고 있는 것 또한 無視할 수 없다. 現在에도 우리는 은연중에 各者의 意識속에 스며들어 日常生活에 作用하는 風水思想의 影響을 感知할 수 있다. 風水思想이 우리나라 歷史에 끼친 長短点은 접어 두고라도 우리와의 密接性만은 否定할 수 없다는 事實이 風水地理說의 一面을 究明해 보고자 한 原因이며, 風水地理說 自體가 우리 民族의 民間信仰으로 자리를 잡을 수 있게끔 한 朝鮮初期를 時代的 背景으로 삼아서 어떤 歷史的 發展段階를 거쳤는지를 살펴 보았다.
Fulltext
Show the fulltext
Appears in Collections:
일반대학원 > 사회과교육학과 > Theses_Master
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML


qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE