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카발레브스키(D. Kabalevsky)의 피아노 소나타 No. 3, Op. 46에 관한 연구

Title
카발레브스키(D. Kabalevsky)의 피아노 소나타 No. 3, Op. 46에 관한 연구
Other Titles
An analytical study of D. Kabalevsky Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 46 : Centered on the First Movement
Authors
이정은
Issue Date
2009
Department/Major
대학원 음악학부
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
계명선
Abstract
본 논문은 러시아의 작곡가 카발레브스키(Dmitry Brisovich Kabalevsky, 1904-1987)의 피아노 소나타 3번(Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 46)의 분석을 통해 당시 시대적 배경과 함께 그의 음악을 이해하는데 도움을 주기 위한 연구이다. 19세기 말부터 20세기 초에 이르러 전 세계적으로 후기 낭만주의가 쇠퇴하면서 다양성이 화두가 되었다. 이에 맞춰 러시아에서도 고정관념을 깨려는 시도가 일어났고 이것은 러시아 음악을 쓰자는 국민주의로 발전한다. 하지만 1917년의 혁명 이후 러시아 정부는 새로운 음악기법의 시도를 인정하지 않고, 사회주의적인 테마의 사실적인 음악만을 인정함으로 인하여 많은 작곡가들은 서구로 망명하였다. 소련에 남아 있었던 작곡가들은 공산당에 순응하고 만족해야 했으며, 사회주의를 받아들여 대중을 위한 예술적 작품을 작곡하였다. 카발레브스키는 평생을 러시아에서 살면서 정부 음악 정책에 순응한 사람들 중의 대표적 작곡가이다. 그의 음악은 당시의 사회상을 반영하면서도 음악적으로 그만의 독창적이고 예술적인 특징을 나타낸다. 화성에 있어서 덜 대담하였지만, 반음계주의와 서로 얽혀있는 온음계주의, 장단조의 교차를 선호했다. 다른 많은 러시아 작곡가들에게서도 공통적으로 나타나는 서브도미넌트(Subdominant)의 중요한 역할과 잦은 3도 음정의 병렬과 같은 특징 역시 그의 작품에서도 나타나고 있다. 피아노 소나타 No. 3, Op. 46은 3개의 악장으로 구성되었다. 1악장은 소나타 형식, 2악장은 가곡 형식, 3악장은 론도 형식으로 고전적인 형식의 전통을 그대로 따랐지만 내용면에서는 잦은 변박, 복조성, 베이스의 대위법적 라인, 분산화음의 선율보조, 온음계와 반음계의 섞인 진행을 통해서 카발레브스키만의 독특한 음악세계를 표현하고 있는 작품이다.;Germany and France played dominant roles in keyboard music in Europe during the 19th century, but in the end, the compositions of German composers become the model for Kabalevsky's Piano Sonata No. 3 Op, 46. The situation depended on whether Kabalevsky complied with or rejected the German form of music. Musical status was closely associated with political factors, and at the end of the 19th century, as a result of the collapse of the Habsburg Haus of Austria, the subject states of Bohemia and Hungary expressed national character and patriotic sentiments. In Russia, a strong criticism on the artistry of the West and the influence of Germany arose, and due to such criticism the music of many European countries were influenced by nationalism. Composers made efforts to find inspiration from their own nations, and such tendencies were clearly recognizable in operas and symphonies. They made new attempts inspired by folksongs, dance, sounds of ethnic instruments and so on, and this in turn influenced other forms of music. Dmitry Brisovich Kabalevsky is a composer, critic, musicologist and music educator born in St Petersburg, Russia in 1904. With advent of communism, due to the Russian Revolution in 1917, many musicians fled to the West, but his family moved altogether to Moscow. Since then he spent his lifetime in Moscow and died on February 14, 1987. He learned composition from George Catoire and Nikolai Myaskovsky, and piano from Alexander Goldenweiser. He maintained a conservative attitude in preserving the traditions of music, and a strong social responsibility in educating children about music, and due to this the Kabalevsky was elevated as a national hero by the Soviet government. Many other composers experienced difficulty, but Kabalevsky overcame the social barrier with original and creative artistry. Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 46, composed in 1946, was the last piano sonata that he composed. It is a piece with a beautiful melody that the pianist and audience can both easily feel sympathy. Kabalevsky's Sonata No. 3, Op. 46 is a sonata that consists of three movements. Generally a sonata consists of four movements, but this piece consists of three movements instead of four, and like the common structure of a sonata consisting of three movements, the first movement is in a sonata form, second movement in the song form, and the third movement in a rondo form. The form of the first movement is made up of the exposition, the development and the recapitulation, and in the coda appears in the end. The first subject and the second subject of the exposition are in F Major and C Major, which are in dominant relation. At the end of the first subject , an unusual development occurs ? the melody does not return to the original key but modulates to another key. The nonharmonic chords are frequently used in chromatic usage, and the tonality of the melody is relatively accurate, and the tonality of the chords attached to the melody appears obscurely, which are the distinctive features. In the recapitulation, A♭ Major is newly exposed, showing a different feature from the classical sonata, which uses the tonality of the first subject group of the exposition in the recapitulation. As opposed to the exposition where each section shows only one change (either the tempo or the melody), at the beginning of the development, both a change in tempo and change in melody occur synchronously. It is analogically inferred that the reason why the exposition and development is clearly divided by change in the tempo and melody in this manner is because it is the beginning of not a division of the attached section within the exposition but of the development, a large new section.
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