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Gabriel Faure의 song cycle「La Bonne Chanson」Op.61에 關한 分析的 硏究

Gabriel Faure의 song cycle「La Bonne Chanson」Op.61에 關한 分析的 硏究
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(A) Study of faures "La bonne chanson"
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대학원 음악학과
가곡song cycleGabriel Faure
이화여자대학교 대학원
19世紀末부터 20世紀初는 浪漫主義가 발전하여 浪漫派의 技法이 새로운 표현방법으로 전화되는 시기였는데 G. Faure´(1845∼1924)는 이 時期의 불란서 作曲家로, 낭만주의 음악과 近代音樂을 연결해주는 역할을 한 重要한 작곡가이다. 그는 전통을 존중하면서도 조성이나 형식에 있어서 좀 더 자유로와지고자 노력하였으며 그러한 그의 作品傾向은 同時代 작곡가이며 인상파 음악의 代表作曲家인 C. Debussy(1862∼1918)나 M. Ravel(1875∼1973)에게도 많은 영향을 끼치게 된다. 本 論文에서 本人은 Faure´의 歌曲作品中 대표작으로 꼽히고 있는 "La Bonne Chanson" op.61의 分析硏究를 통하여 프랑스 가곡에 대한 理解와 함께 프랑스 가곡사에 있어 Faure´의 位置를 알아보며 그의 작품의 特徵이 이 곡에 어떻게 나타나고 있는가를 硏究해 보았다. 먼저 序論에서 불란서 歌曲이 L. F. Gounod(1818∼1893), A. C. L. Bizet(1838∼1875)等의 불란서 가곡 작곡가를 거쳐 G. Faure´, H. Duparc(1848∼1933), E. Chausson(1855∼1899)에 이르러 독일 Lied와 비교할 만한 예술성을 지닌 가곡으로 發展하게 된 과정을 간단히 서술한 후 Faure´의 작품시기를 셋으로 나누어 그에 해당하는 代表作品들을 알아 보았고 그의 가곡에 있어서의 一般的인 特徵을 文獻調査를 통해 연구하였으며 "La Bonne Chanson"의 詩를 쓴 P. Verlaine와 관련하여 시가 쓰여지게 된 동기와 상징주의 시풍에 관해 알아 보았다. 또한 "La Bonne Chanson" op.61의 詩, 旋律, 和聲, 형식, 리듬 구성, piano部의 음형등을 중심으로 Faure´의 音樂的인 特徵을 살펴보았다. 이 "La Bonne Chanson"은 아홉개의 曲이 進行되는 동안 詩는 차례대로 모두 聯關性이 있고, 음악 역시 어떤 主題를 여러 曲에 反復해서 使用하므로서 각 曲의 연관성을 맺고 있다. 歌曲은 音樂을 중시하는 진행보다도 詩의 內容에 맞추어 作曲되어 있으며 각 시의 내용은 Faure´의 능숙한 음악적인 처리에 의해서 잘 描寫되고 있다. 全體的으로 형식구성이나 화성, 대위법, piano의 음형, 성악성부의 선율등이 아홉 개의 詩들이 가지고 있는 溫和하고 사랑스러운 내용, 內面的인 갈등과 환희등을 잘 이끌고 있고 이 曲은 Faure´의 代表作이라고 하기에 손색이 없는 아름답고 정교한 曲이라 할 수 있다. Faure´의 가곡에 있어서의 여러 독창적인 特徵들이 이 작품속에서도 예외없이 나타나고 있으며, 20세기 近代 現代音樂에 새로운 길을 열어준 G. Faure´의 위치를 再確認하였다.;From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century was the period where Romanticism had developed and the technique of the Romanticist, had converted into a new way of expression. G. Faure´(1845-1924) was a French composer of this period, who played a crucial part in connecting romantic music and modern music. He not only valued the tradition but tried to be more free from the harmony or form and such tendency of his work had a great influence on his contemporaries, C. Debussy(1862-1918) and M. Ravel (1875-1937), who were the typical composers of impressionistic music. In this thesis, we tried to understand the French songs and find the position of Faure´ in the history of French song through the analytic research of Faure´ s masterpiece among his song works, "La Bonne Chanson" op. 61 and studied how the characteristics of his works are seen in this song. Above all, in the introduction, brief mention was made of the process of the development of French songs that could be compared with the German Lied artistically while passing by the French composers, such as L.H. Berlioz(1803-1869), C.F. Gounod(1818-1893), A.C.L. Bizet(1838-1875) and later on to G. Faure´, H. Duparc, E. Chausson(1855-1899). The periods of Faure's works were divided into three parts and found the masterpieces of the respective periods. The general characteristics of his songs were also studied by referring to the documents and inquiring about the motive of the poem "La Bonne Chanson" relating to it's writer P. Verlaine and the style of symbolism poetry. Faure's musical features regarding the poem, melody, harmony, form, rhythm and the melody form of the piano part were studied. As a result, through the whole nine tunes we could find out five main themes mostly from the piano part, and then the melody proceeds making a duet with the voice part, or connecting voice part and voice part. These themes were repeated in various tunes constituting this "La Bonne Chanson" showing the fact that they are musically connected with its poem, as if it formed a symphony and since these themes were musical pieces related to the poem, especially the piano player as well as the singer should understand the words of the whole song and then play it. The melody forms of the piano part are mostly arpeggios or broken chords, which was frequenty used in Faure's songs, and the piano part did as important a role as the voice part in Faure's songs. Each tune's form is largely divided into two, three or four parts and again these parts are divided into smaller parts related to each other and Faure´ had composed these songs in accordance with the process of that time rather than the musical constitution and showed the musical formation well harmonized with the idea of the poem by changing the key(major-minor), the tempo, or the melody form at each part. The melody of the voice part develops the contents of the poem, which is composed of quiet peace, mildness and ecstasy rather than a dramatic change, in a rather simple way and occassionally proceeds freely without the rhythm of the piano part and sometimes, with the piano rhythm, successfully leads the musical expressions of the moment. Through the whole cycle we could hardly see the contrapuntal handling between the voice part and the piano part but songs mentioned the main theme or characteristic melody form independantly and showed the process likely to a kind of duet that supplements the voice part. The harmony mostly proceeds by use of chords of the seventh and ninth and through chromatic modulation and enharmonic change it changes the key into unexpected chords and the components of frequent key change of each tune proceed to a clear composition. He added nonharmonic tones such as appogiatura to the discord which is made up of the seventh chord or ninth chord, to decorate the chromatic process of the chord better and their way of connecting the chords can be regarded as a more advanced way of process than the conventional way. Since, through the whole work, there are many musical processes without excessive ritardando, soloist and pianist should be reminded to maintain the tempo of the melody to the end and to depict the change of the atmosphere contrasted according to the contents of the poem.
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