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王安石의 科擧制度改革에 대한 一考察

Title
王安石의 科擧制度改革에 대한 一考察
Other Titles
(A) study of Wang An-Shih' reform of civil service examination system
Authors
林玄淑
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
왕안석과거제도개혁사학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
국 영문초록 수록;王安石의 新法에 대하여는 이미 많은 硏究가 되어 왔고 王安石의 科擧改革의 중요성도 科擧史에서 많이 논의되어 왔다. 또 王安石의 官吏登用策에 대한 硏究도 이미 상당한 성과를 거두고 있다. 本考에서는 이러한 기존의 硏究성과를 바탕으로 하여 王安石의 政治理念論이 현실적으로 어떤 定策으로 나타나며 또 그것이 거둔 효과는 어떠한 것이었는가에 중점을 두어 살펴보았다. 科擧制度는 宋代에 들어와서 制度的으로 더욱 정비되고 官吏選拔의 正規制度로 完成을 보게 되었다. 그런데 宋初의 科擧 科目으로 중시된 進士科와 諸科의 試題는 詩賦·帖經·墨義가 중심이었다. 그러므로 科擧합격자들이 官吏가 되어 實務에 임하여서는 그들의 知識은 쓸모없는 것이었다. 또한 官吏들에게 적당한 봉급이 주어지지 않았으므로 官吏들은 부패하기 쉬웠다. 이와같은 官界내에서의 문제와 더불어 北宋중기에 이르면 국초의 쇄신의 기풍이 사라지고 또 異民族과의 충돌로 인한 財政的인 압박 등 國政 전반에 걸쳐 위기를 맞게 된다. 그러므로 이러한 危機를 타개하기 위한 한 방법으로 科擧制度 改革論議가 일어나게 되었다. 왜냐하면 중국에서 통치의 가장 중요한 수단은 官吏와 관련된 것이었기 때문이다. 本考에서는 北宋중기의 대표적인 理想主義的인 學者 官僚로 范仲淹, 司馬光, 歐陽修, 蘇軾의 科擧改革安에 대해 살펴보았는데 이들의 改革安을 종합 發展시켜 實現시킨 것이 王安石의 科擧制度 改革이었다. 王安石의 政治思想의 일대집약인 "上仁宗皇帝言事書"의 내용은 인재가 중심이 되어 있어 王安石의 政治思想 가운데 人材가 극히 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있다는 것을 알 수 있다. 王安石은 전문적으로 잘 훈련되고 행정적으로 잘 통제된 官吏를 儒敎的 德治國家 실현의 가장 중요한 수단으로 생각하는 官僚主義的 理想主義를 갖고 있었다. 이러한 그의 官吏登用 理想論의 실현이 科擧改革이었다. 王安石의 科擧制度 改革의 내용은 첫째 太學에 三舍法을 실시한 것이다. 이 三舍法을 통해 科擧를 거치지 않고 官界에 진출할 수 있는 길이 열리므로 太學은 科擧에서 떠나 자신의 독립된 의의를 갖고 政治的 의미를 갖게 되었다. 둘째 名經諸科를 폐지하고 達士科로 통일하므로써 後代의 科擧의 한 전형을 이룩하였다. 셋째 進士科의 試題를 詩賦 중심에서 經義와 論策으로 바꾸었다. 그러므로 科擧지망자들에게 治道에 관심을 갖게 하였다. 넷째는 進士科합격자들에게 律義를 시험하여 官을 주었다. 그러므로 官吏들이 최소한의 實務知識을 갖출 수 있는 制度的인 장치가 마련된 것이었다. 이상과 같은 科擧制度改革으로 등용된 官吏들이 어떠했는지 살펴보기 위해 神宗年間의 科擧登第者를 宋史 列傳을 통해 분석해 보았다. 王安石이 新法을 실시했을 때 대부분의 旣成 官吏들은 반대하고 비판하였다. 그런데 이들 科擧改革으로 등용된 官吏들에서는 반대자보다 찬성자가 많았다. 물론 여기에는 科擧 외의 요인도 많이 작용하였겠으나 科擧도 한 역할을 담당했다는 것이다. 그러나 治績과 德行에 있어서 상당한 성과를 보이는 사람들을 新法으로 끌어 들이지 못하고 또 新法系인물과 관련된 사람들에게서도 完全한 협력을 얻지 못한데에 新法 실패의 한 원인이 있다고 생각할 수 있을 것 같다. 그러나 王安石은 新法을 실시하면서 同心同德의 관리를 절실히 필요로 했고 이런 官吏를 얻기 위해서는 먼저 官吏가 될 사람들의 意識을 변화시키는 것이 필요하다. 그러므로 科擧改革은 現狀을 타파하고 改革을 근본적으로 하기 위해서는 반드시 필요하고 또 중요한 것이었다.;Wang An-shih's New Policies have already been studied by many scholars in many aspects. The importance of his Reform of Civial Service Examination System also has been well mentioned in the history of Civil Service Examination System. And the studies on Wang's associates are no mean achievement. In this study, on the basis of these previous studies, I tried to examine how his political ideas were put into practice and what the result of this Reform of Civil Service Examination System was. By early Sung, the Civil Service Examination System was completed as an institution and became one of the most important methods of enterance into the government service. By the way, the examination of the doctoral candidates merely emphasizes formal style and the rules of rhymes. And the examination on the classics sets a premium on memorization and fails to ask questions on the interpretation of their deep meaning. So When the candidates passed the examinations and entered into government service the major faults of the bureaucrats were their lack of both utilitarian orientation and practical ability. And the salaries of the officials were so low that they were easily corrupt. With these problems in officialdom, the Sung state encountered national difficulties in many aspects in the middle of nothern Sung. One way to solve these problems, discussions on the Reform of Civil Service Examination System were presented. The zealous officials who were idealistic and interested in general improvement sought the reform of the bureaucracy and sometimes that of the sub-bureaucracy as a necessary step to carry out their policies. Because the most important among administrative methods were those concerned with personnel and emperor's success was proportional to bureaucratic ability and morale in China. In this study, I tried to examine the discussions on the Reform of Civil Service Examination System of Fan Chung-yen, Ssu-ma kuang, Ou-yang Hsiu and Su shih. Wang's Reform of Civil Service Examination System was the embodiment and development of these discussions. Wang's famous "Myriad Word memorial" continually stresses the fundamental importance of capable officials. This Memorial is a remarkable document outlining a kind of bureaucratic idealism which means a political view that upholds the ideal of a professionally well-trained and administratively well-controlled bureaucracy as the principal instrument in striving toward the realization of Confucian moral society. His Reform of Civil Service Examination System was the outcome of this political idea. The contents of Wang's Reform of Civil Service Examination System are as follows; 1. Reorganization of the National Academy so that it Would eventually replace the Examination System. And the students could enter into government service without taking the examination, so that the National Academy became independant of examination System and had political importance. 2. The abolition of the examination on the classics and integrated into the doctoral examination. So the model of later period's Examination System was established. 3. Placement of emphasis on problems, policy discussions, and interpretations of the classics rather on poetry and rhymed prose n the regular doctoral examination. So the condidates could concentrate on administrative matters. 4. A test in law for the holders of the doctorate degree and other persons eligible for appointment. So an institutional method was established to make the officials have the minimum practical knowledge. Finally, I analyzed the Biographies of bureaucrats recruited by this reformed Civil Service Examination System during emperor Shin-tsung in Sung-shih to know the results of this Reform of Civil Service Examination System. When the New Policies were first introduced Wang encountered so much difficulty because the majority in the bureaucracy opposed him with all its power. But among the bureaucrats recruited by Wang's Reform of Civil Service Examination System, there were more people preferable to New Policies than those opposing to New Policies. Of course, there would be lots of other factors causing this political trend, but Wang's Reform of Civil Service Examination System was one of them. However, those who were prominent in bureaucratic ability morale, and even the bureaucrats who had personal relations with the people who were favorable to New Policies, didn't entirely cooperated in New Policies, there lies one cause of the failure of New Policies. In introducing his New Policies, however, Wang really needed like-minded bureaucrats. To recruit like-minded bureaucrats, there should be change of students' thoughts. And to change students' thoughts there should be reform of education and examination. So Wang's Reform of Civil Service Examination System was really important to reform the situation thoroghly.
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